Give lots of objects that can be easily rasped. 3. Balance improves and eye-hand coordination becomes more precise. Strategy: Kick a large ball Social and Emotional 1. Parent-?infant bonding Strategy: bonding is a strong and loving connection that will form as you hold and feed a newborn. 2. 2 months old babies start to smile and they are getting a reaction from another person. They also smile back at you. Strategy: mimic the baby actions. Sticking out your tongue and making funny faces. 3. 9 months babies are socially interactive and play games.
Strategy: Play patty cake and Peek- a – boo. 4. Babies can look at the place on the body that is being touched. Strategy: Sing the song head, shoulders, knees and toes or say each one out load. 1 . Attachment Strategy: physical touch the child by patting, holding, caressing should be frequent. 2. Interested in his mirror image Strategy: Give them a toy mirror to smile or make faces at themselves or look into a mirror with your child and have some fun. 3. Children are playing by themselves and initiate their own play. Strategy: dress- up clothes for dramatic play. . Children become more aware of themselves and their ability to make things happen. Strategy: can help to put things away. Cognitive and Language 1. Babies start to recognize local language, their native language before they utter a sound. Strategy: Talk directly to the child giving them eye contact. 2. Begin repetitive babbling Strategy: Use The high-pitched or baby talk simplified, and repetitive to talk to babies. 3. 9 to 12 months babies might say a few words. Strategy: Read colorful books to your child every day and tell nursery rhymes and sing songs. 1.
Children start to use two word combinations like “hi” and “bye-bye”. Strategy: Talk in full sentencing using Correct grammar. Repeat daily life and do not watch videos. 2. Learn through exploration Strategy: give something that they can watch the path of something as it falls. 3. Understand the names of familiar people and objects. Strategy: Teach your child the names of everyday items and familiar people. Behavior 1 . Sucking reflex for hunger and comfort is established. Strategy: Breast feed babies need opportunities to drink out of a bottle or provide a pacifier before 4 months. . Asking for help Strategy: fussing, pointing and gesturing to accomplish what they want. 3. 8 months, babies first understand the concept of object permanence. Strategy: cover toys with a light weight cloth 1. Tertiary circular reactions begins 12 – 18 months. Strategy: purposeful activities become more expansive and creative. Toddlers are delighted squeezing all the toothpaste out of the tube. 2. 12 -? 18 month’s children become a little scientist by experiments, using trial and creative exploration.
Strategy: Squish food in hands, observing any changes in color and texture and taste and smell. 3. Self-control Strategy: Rolling a ball back and forth. Children have the chance to wait and control their impulse to grab the ball. 4. Separation anxiety is normal at age 1, intensifies by age 2, and usually subsides. Strategy: talk to and reassure child. Every child is different, and so is every parent’s experience; but experts have a clear idea about the range of normal development from birth to age 5 and signs that a child might have a developmental delay (Child Development Guide, 2007).
Developmental milestone is a skill a child acquires within a specific time frame but, the development of each child will be different from other children because each child will develop at their own pace. Child milestone will develop in a sequential fashion and each milestone that a child acquires builds on the last child development milestone developed (Child Development Guide, 2007). There is no penalty for being cautious about a growing child, and if there is a problem acting early can make all the difference (Healthy Mind, 2015). Genes and the environment affect every characteristic (Bell, 2010).
Nature always affects nurture, and nurture always affects nature. In development, nature refers to the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception (Bell, 2010). Nature includes serotonin in the brain and physiological maturation that can affect development. Biological ND environmental issues can affect critical and sensitive periods of development. Poor maternal nutrition can permit normal infant development, delaying or damage Eng motor skills (Bell, 2010).
In development, nurture includes all the environmental influences that affect the individual after conception (Bell, 2010). This is everything from the mother’s nutrition while pregnant to the cultural influences in the nation. Nurture includes parental smoking and sleeping position (Bell, 2010). Exposure to environmental toxins such as lead paint or heavy and constant exhaust fumes also becomes a biological factor in infant development, in terror and after birth. If diseases or disorders are pass through heredity which can cause a delay in development (Bell, 2010).
The environment affects every trait as well, in ways that change as maturational, cultural, and historical processes unfold. Genes themselves can be modified through epigenetic factors, including drugs and nutrition (Berger, 201 1). Culture is evident in sensory and motor development, as brain networks respond to the particulars of each infants life and culture affects development is reading books to toddlers, a behavior that advances language development. Some implies use other ways to foster literacy instead of reading books (Berger, 201 1).
From the earliest moments of life, the interaction of heredity and the environment works to shape who children are and who they will become (Berger, 2011 ). While the genetic instructions a child inherits from his parents may set out a road map for development, the environment can impact how these directions are expressed, shaped or event silenced.