ch 1-5 study vocab

Term 1.             Alienation—
Definition1.

Estrangement or disconnected from oneself or others.

Term 2.             Assimilation—
Definition2. Process by which groups adopt and change the dominant culture.
Term 3.             Bi-cultural—
Definition3. The condition by which members of an oppressed group are forced to operate in the dominant culture at work and school, and in a different culture at home and in their community.

Term 4.             Canon—
Definition4. The principles, rules, standards, values, or norms that guide a Western European education.
Term 5.             Compensatory education—
Definition5. The provision of special services to students who have limited economic or educational advantages.
Term 6.             Critical thinking—
Definition6.

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An effort to see an issue clearly and accurately to judge it fairly without a preset bias.

Term 7.             Cultural borders—
Definition7. A boundary between groups based on cultural differences that may limit an individual’s understanding of persons from a different cultural background.
Term 8.             Cultural capital—
Definition8.

Endowments such as academic competence, language competence, and wealth that provide an advantage to an individual, family, or group.

Term 9.             Culture
Definition9. Socially transmitted ways of thinking, believing, feeling, and acting within a group. These patterns are transmitted from one generation to the next.

Term 10.          Cultural pluralism—
Definition10.                     The maintenance of cultures as parallel and equal to the dominant culture in a society.
Term 11.

          Curriculum—

Definition11.                     A sequence of courses offered by educational institutions.
Term 12.          Democracy—
Definition12.                     A government in which power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through elected representatives.
Term 13.          Discrimination—
Definition13.                     The arbitrary denial of the privileges and rewards of society to members of a group.

Term 14.          Dispositions—
Definition14.                     Values, attitudes, and commitments that guide the work of teachers and other school professionals.

Term 15.          Dominant group—
Definition15.                     The cultural group whose values and behaviors have been adopted by most institutions in society, such as schools. In the United States, it is the middle class, white, English-speaking, heterosexual Christian culture with its historical roots in Europe.
Term 16.          Egalitarianism—
Definition16.

                     A belief in social, political, and economic rights and privileges for all people.

Term 17.          Enculturation—
Definition17.                     Process of acquiring the characteristics of a given culture and becoming competent in its language and ways of behaving and learning.
Term 18.          Equality—
Definition18.

                     State of being equal in that one cultural group is not inferior or superior to another and that all groups have access to the same benefits of society regardless of their group memberships.

Term 19.          Ethnocentrism—
Definition19.                     View that one’s cultural group is superior to all others.
Term 20.          Freedom—
Definition20.                     Not being unduly hampered or constrained in choice or action by others.

Term 21.          Hidden curriculum—
Definition21.                     —The unwritten and informal rules that guide the expected behaviors and attitudes of students in school.

Term 22.          Immigration—
Definition22.                     To enter a country in which one was not born for the purpose of becoming a permanent resident.
Term 23.          Individualism—
Definition23.                     Dominant feature of western culture that stresses the rights, freedom, and importance of the individual over groups.
Term 24.          Inequality—
Definition24.

                     Marked distinctions in economic success, educational achievement, educational credentials, and power among groups of people.

Term 25.          Involuntary immigrants—
Definition25.                     Immigrants who did not choose to emigrate from their native countries, but were forced to or conquered by the dominant group.
Term 26.          Marginalization—
Definition26.                     Relegation to a position that is not part of the mainstream or accepted by most people.
Term 27.

          Meritocracy—

Definition27.                     A system based on the belief that an individual’s achievements are based on their own personal merits and hard work and that the people who achieve at the highest levels deserve the greatest social and financial rewards.
Term 28.          Multicultural education—
Definition28.                     An educational concept that addresses cultural diversity and equity in schools. It incorporates the different cultural groups to which individuals belong, with an emphasis on the interaction of race, ethnicity, class, and gender in students’ lives.

Term 29.          Multiculturalism—
Definition29.                     The condition in which different cultural groups can maintain their unique cultural identities while participating equally in the dominant culture.
Term 30.

          Otherness—

Definition30.                     Negative attitudes about a group of people.
Term 31.          Prejudice—
Definition31.                     Cultural groups that are different than our own.
Term 32.          Privilege—
Definition32.

                     Advantages and power over others in society because of one’s socioeconomic status, race, native language, gender, or other group memberships.

Term 33.          Proficiencies—
Definition33.

                     Knowledge, skills, or dispositions that students or teachers acquire to meet standards

Term 34.          Racism—
Definition34.                     The belief that one race has inherent superiority over all others and thereby has the right to dominance.
Term 35.          Sexism—
Definition35.                     The conscious or unconscious belief that men are superior to women that results in behavior and action to maintain the superior, powerful position of males in society and families.
Term 36.          Social justice—
Definition36.

                     A philosophy that expects citizens to provide for those persons in society who are not as advantaged as others.

Term 37.          Socialization—
Definition37.                     Process of learning the social norms and expectations of the culture and society.
Term 38.          Stereotyped—
Definition38.                     Application of generalizations, many of which are inaccurate and negative, about a group without consideration of individual differences within the group.

Term 39.          Structural assimilation—
Definition39.                     Assimilation of groups to the point that they share primary relationships, intermarry, and have equality with the dominant group.
Term 40.          Subcultures—
Definition40.                     Groups within a society that are connected to cultural group memberships such as gender, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, exceptionalities, language, and age.
Term 41.          Subsocieties—
Definition41.

                     Groups within a society such as punk, gangs, skinheads, or hippies that have developed their own values, attitudes, and behaviors, which are different from the norm and often not acceptable to the dominant cultural group.

Term 42.          Values—
Definition42.                     Qualities or principles that are considered desirable and important
Term 43.          Authenticity—
Definition43.

                     Relates the curriculum and activities to real-world applications with meaning in the lives of students.

Term 44.          Authoritarian—
Definition44.                     The concentration of power in one figure, usually the teacher or principal in schools.
Term 45.          Blue-collar—
Definition45.                     Jobs or workers characterized by manual labor that is usually mechanical and routine.
Term 46.

          Class

Definition46.                     A group sharing the same economic and social status.
Term 47.          Classism—
Definition47.                     The view that one’s class level (e.

g., middle class or upper class) makes one superior to members of classes perceived below one’s own.

Term 48.          Income—
Definition48.                     Amount of money earned in wages or salaries.
Term 49.

          McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act—

Definition49.                     The federal legislation that outlined the education rights and protections for homeless children and youth.
Term 50.          Median income—
Definition50.                     The number of persons, families, or households who earn more than this income is the same as the number who earn less than this income.
Term 51.

          Middle class—

Definition51.                     Group whose members earn annual incomes that allow them to have a standard of living that includes owning a home and car. Members are blue-collar workers, white-collar workers, professionals, and managers.
Term 52.          Net worth—
Definition52.

                     Amount of money remaining if all owned property was converted to cash and all debts were paid.

Term 53.          Self-fulfilling prophecy—
Definition53.                     A teacher’s prediction of a student’s academic achievement that becomes true as the student progresses through the education process. These projects are often based on socioeconomic, social, and cultural factors that lead to placement in an academic track which may or may not match his or her academic potential.

Term 54.          Social stratification—
Definition54.                     Ranking of persons and families based on specific characteristics such as income, education, occupation, wealth, and power.
Term 55.

          Socioeconomic status—

Definition55.                     Composite of the economic status of families or persons on the basis of occupation, educational attainment, income, and wealth.
Term 56.          Upper class—
Definition56.                     Group whose members earn the highest annual incomes and have the greatest wealth.
Term 57.          Upper middle class—
Definition57.

                     Group whose members are the affluent middle class who are highly educated professionals, managers, and administrators.

Term 58.          Wealth—
Definition58.                     Accumulated money and property such as stocks, homes, and cars that can be turned into money.
Term 59.          White-collar—
Definition59.

                     Jobs or workers characterized by non-manual labor in offices, retail stores, and sales.

Term 60.          Working class—
Definition60.

                     Group whose members hold manual jobs that do not generally require postsecondary education, except for the more skilled jobs.

Term 61.          Cooperative learning—
Definition61.                     Strategy for grouping students to work together on a project or activity to support and learn from each other.

Term 62.          Deductive—
Definition62.                     A way of thinking and reasoning that begins with general principles to reach conclusions about particular details
Term 63.

          Feminists—

Definition63.                     Persons who actively support the rights of women.
Term 64.          Gender—
Definition64.                     The characteristics associated with femininity and masculinity as determined by culture.

Term 65.          Inductive—
Definition65.                     A way of thinking and reasoning that begins with specific facts or details to reach a general conclusion.

Term 66.          Nonsexist education—
Definition66.                     Education that attends to the needs of girls and boys equitably by incorporating females as well as males in the curriculum, ensuring that girls and boys achieve at the same levels in all subjects, and encouraging girls and boys to choose subjects which they traditionally would not have selected.
Term 67.          Patriarchal—
Definition67.                     Social organization in which the father controls the family, and the wife and children are legally dependent on him.

It also refers to men having a disproportionately large share of power in society.

Term 68.          Sexism
Definition68.

                     The conscious or unconscious belief that men are superior to women that results in behavior and action to maintain the superior, powerful position of males in society and families.

Term 69.          Sexual abuse—
Definition69.                     Sexual activity among males and females or the same sex that is unwelcome. The abuse can be among peers or adults involved with children or underage adolescents.
Term 70.

          Sexual harassment—

Definition70.                     Unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior that includes verbal, visual, or physical abuse that interferes with the victim’s life.
Term 71.          Title IX—
Definition71.                     Legislation passed by Congress in 1972 to provide females equal access to all aspects of education, including the curriculum and athletics.
Term 72.          Bisexual—
Definition72.                     Sexual attraction to both the same sex and opposite sex.

Term 73.          Gay—
Definition73.                     Males who are sexually attracted to other males. The term is sometimes used to refer to all homosexual.
Term 74.          Gay-straight alliance (GSA)
Definition74.

                     A student-initiated club of LGBTQ and straight students that provides a safe place for students to discuss issues and meet others with similar interests.

Term 75.          Heteronormativity
Definition75.

                     The assumption that heterosexuality is normal and any other sexual identity is abnormal.

Term 76.          Heterosexism
Definition76.                     An irrational fear of or aversion to homosexuals that leads to prejudice, discrimination, and sometimes violence against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered persons. Although heterosexism is the more accurate term, homophobia is more commonly used.

Term 77.          Heterosexual —
Definition77.                     Sexual attraction to persons of the opposite sex.

Term 78.          Homophobia—
Definition78.                     An irrational fear of or aversion to homosexuals that leads to prejudice, discrimination, and sometimes violence against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered persons.
Term 79.          Homosexual—
Definition79.                     Sexual attraction to persons of the same sex.

Term 80.          Intersex—
Definition80.                     Persons born with sexual organs of both men and women.
Term 81.

          Lesbian —

Definition81.                     Women who are sexually attracted to other women.
Term 82.          LGBT—
Definition82.                     Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender.

Term 83.          LGBTIQ—
Definition83.                     Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or queer/questioning.

Term 84.          LGBTQ—
Definition84.                     Theory that challenges categories of man/woman and gay/straight
Term 85.          Queer Theory
Definition85.                     Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning.
Term 86.          Sexual Identity
Definition86.

                     The sexual orientation with which one identifies.

Term 87.          Sexual orientation
Definition87.                     One’s sexual attraction to persons of the same or opposite sex or both sexes.

Term 88.          Transgender
Defintion 88.                       Persons who have a psychological sense that their gender does not match their biological sex.
Term 89.          Transvestites
Defintion89.                       Persons, especially males, who adopt the dress and behaviors of the opposite sex.
Term 90.

          Transsexuals

Defintion90.                       Persons who have surgically changed their genitals and characteristics to match their gender identity.