Ch. 10 Key Terms

behavioral objectives
objectives that describe conditions for teaching and learning, what is to be learned, and criteria for success
classroom management
collective ability of the teachers and students to agree on and implement a common framework for social and academic interactions
concept formation
method of instruction used by teachers when they want students to analyze and synthesize data to construct knowledge about a specific concept or idea
cooperative learning
teaching model that encourages heterogeneous groups of students to work together to achieve such goals as mastery of subject matter and understanding and acceptance of one another
curriculum
what is taught inside and sometimes outside school
curriculum map
timeline indicating approximate dates when concepts and skills will be introduced
direct instruction
highly structured, teacher-centered strategy that capitalizes on such behavioral techniques as modeling, feedback, and reinforcement to promote basic skill acquisition, primarily in reading and mathematics
explicit curriculum
curriculum contained in policy statements, manuals of procedure, instructional materials, books, and other printed matter that explicate what and how students are to learn
extracurriculum
non-credit-bearing activities, such as debate club and cheerleading, that are over and above the required curriculum
implicit curriculum
unvoiced and often unintended lessons influenced by teachers’ value orientations
inquiry learning
answering and solving problems by analyzing data and creating and testing theories and hypotheses to expand the conceptual system with which one processes information
instructional models
deliberate, explicit, complete plans for teaching that can be fitted to students and objectives
integrated curriculum
curriculum that combines concepts and skills from different subject areas so that they are mutually reinforcing
mastery learning
one of several behavioral models that suggest that, given enough time, the inclination to learn, and instruction fitted to a student’s needs, students are capable of mastering a range of subject matter
nondirective model
teaching strategy in which teachers act as facilitators and reflectors to encourage students to define problems and feelings, to take responsibility for solving problems, and to determine how personal goals might be reached
null curriculum
curriculum that is not taught in schools
project-based learning
involvement of students in relatively long-term, problem-based units of instruction that allow students to pursue solutions to problems posed by students, teachers, or curriculum developers
synectics
teaching model that seeks to increase students’ problem-solving abilities, creative expression, empathy, and insight into social situations
teacher planning
consideration of such things as curriculum, state and local goals and objectives for student learning, instructional strategies for meeting those standards, and methods for assessing students’ understanding