Ch. 2

Erikson’s theory:
Psychosocial Development
Epigenetic principle
personality develops through a series of genetically predetermined stages that interact with social interactions in the environment
Erikson’s crisis
when people feel compelled to adjust to the normal guidelines and expectations of society but are not certain that they are prepared to carry out these demands fully
Stages of Pyschosocial Development
Industry Vs. Inferiority (6-11 yrs)Identity Vs. Role Confusion (12-18 yrs)
Role confusion
uncertainty as to what behaviors will elicit a favorable response from others
Psychosocial Moratorium
period of identity development marked by a delay of commitment.

Ideally, a time of exploration having a positive or neutral impact on self and society

Identity Statuses
James Marcia. Style of approach adolescents use to deal with issues such as career goals, gender-role orientation, and religious beliefs.
Identity Diffusion
Not yet experienced. Ideas are easily influenced by feedback. Not self-directed; avoids getting involved
Not experienced but strongly committed to the values of mentors.

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Close minded, dependent on guidance of authority figures

Partially experienced, has given some thought to identity. May be anxious/ temporarily rejecting traditional values
Identity achievement
Fully experienced. Strong commitment; has given full consideration to self-chosen aspects of identity. Introspective, rational, likely to form interpersonal relationships.
Piaget’s theory:
Cognitive Development
human tendency to systematize, to pull together a variety of processes into an overall system
human tendency to make adaptations to our environments
an organized pattern of behavior or thought that children formulate as they interact with their social and physical surroundings
process of fitting new experience into an existing scheme
process of creating or revising a scheme to fit a new experience
Constructing knowledge
Piaget. The view that meaningful learning is the active creation of knowledge structures, rather than a mere transferring of objective knowledge from one person to another.

Birth to 2 years. Develops schemes mainly through sense and motor activities. Object permanence.
2 to 7 years. Acquires ability to conserve and decenter, but is not capable of operations or mentally reversing actions.
The ability to think of more than one quality of an object or problem at a time
Concrete operational
7-11 years. Capable of operations.

Solves problems by generalizing from concrete experiences. Is not able to manipulate conditions mentally unless they have been experienced

Formal Operational
11 years+. Able to deal with abstractions, form hypotheses, solve problems systematically, and engage in mental manipulation.

Psychological tools
cognitive devices and procedures with which we communicate and explore the world around us. Vygotsky
Spontaneous concepts
Vygotsky. The facts, concepts, and rules that young children acquire as a natural consequence of engaging in everyday activities
Scientific concepts
Vygotsky. Tools that allow one to systematically and consciously manipulate an environment
Empirical learning
use of noticeable characteristics of objects and events to form spontaneous concepts; type of learning typical of young children. Vygotsky
Theoretical learning
learning how to use psychological tools across a range of settings and problem types to acquire new knowledge and skills
zone of proximal development
Vygotsky’s term for the difference between what children can do on their own, and what the child can accomplish with some assistance
supporting learning during its early phases with:-demonstrations-hints-leading questionsAs students become more capable, these are withdrawn
computer scenarios intended to foster cognitive development and overcome misconceptions by allowing students to explore relationships among variables and concepts, and build models of how things work
microcomputer-based laboratories
Microcomputers with attached sensors that can represent data in order to help students explore concepts, test hypotheses, and repair scientific misconceptions
multi-user virtual environments
several people work together online to solve various types of problems (Quest Atlantis)
Networking technologies used by mentors and instructors to participate in the learning community
morality of constraint– moral realism
children up to age 10.

Piaget. Children hold sacred rules that permit no exceptions and make no allowance for intentions

Morality of cooperation moral relativism
Children age 11 and older. Piaget. Morality based on flexible rules and consideration of intent.