Ch. 6 Key Terms

aesthetics
branch of philosophy concerned with beauty
axiology
a branch of philosophy that seeks to determine what is of value
behaviorism
philosophical orientation based on the belief that human behavior is determined by forces in the environment that are beyond human control rather than by exercise of free will
cognitivism
philosophical orientation based on the belief that people actively construct their knowledge of the world through experience and interaction rather than through behavioral conditioning
constructivism
view of knowledge as constructed by individuals acting within a social context that molds knowledge but does not determine absolutely what constitutes knowledge
cosmology
study of nature and origin of the cosmos, or universe
cultural literacy
shared information or common knowledge of a culture supposedly needed to function fully in that culture
epistemology
branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of knowledge or how we come to know things
essentialism
philosophical orientation that acknowledges the existence of a body of knowledge that all people must learn if they are to function effectively in a society
Eurocentric
curriculum and/or teaching depicting Europe as the cradle of Western culture
existentialism
a philosophy that emphasizes the subjectivity of human experience and the importance of individual creativity and choice in a nonrational world
humanism
philosophy that, in terms of education, calls for respect and kindness toward students in developmentally appropriate instruction in liberal arts, social conduct, and moral principles
idealism
philosophy that suggests that the ultimate reality lies in consciousness or reason
Marxism
philosophy based on Carl Marx’s belief that the human condition is determined by forces in history that prevent people from achieving economic freedom and social political equality
metaphysics
branch of;philosophy that focuses on the study of reality
ontology
study of nature, existence, or being
perennialism
philosophy that exalts the great thoughts and accomplishments of the past for their own sake and for what they can offer to future generations
philosophy
set of ideas about the nature of reality and the meaning of life
pragmatism
philosophical method that defines the truth and meaning of ideas according to their physical consequences and practical value
realism
philosophy that suggests that objects of sense or perception exist independently of the mind
scaffolding
method of teaching in which a teacher provides assistance, guidance, and structure to enhance student learning and self-regulation
social reconstructionism
philosophy based on the belief that people are responsible for social conditions and can improve the quality of human life by changing the social order
Socratic method
teaching through inquiry and dialogues in which students discover and clarify knowledge