Chap. 6 (pp. 199-207, 221-229)

a feeling state that involves distinctive physiological reactions and cognitive evaluations, and motivates action
What are the basic emotions?
theory of gradual differentiation
the view that infants are born only with general emotional reactions, which differentiate into basic emotions over the first two years
differential emotions theory
the view that basic emotions are innate and emerge in their adult form, either at birth or on a biologically determined timetable
ontogenetic behavior
refers to a trait or behavior that has evolved because it contributes to survival and normal development; in one view, infant emotions are ontogenetic adaptations
primary intersubjectivity
organized, reciprocal interaction between an infant and caregiver with the interaction itself at the focus
mirror neurons
specialized brain cells that fire when an individual sees or hears another perform an action, just as they would fire if the observing individual were performing the same action
secondary intersubjectivity
a form of interaction between infant and caregiver emerging at age 9-12 months, with communication and emotional sharing focused not just on the interaction but on the world beyond
perceptual scaffolding
the way in which a familiar word serves as an anchor for learning new words that come immediately before of after it
a form of vocalizing, beginning at around 7 months, in which infants utter strings of syllables that combine a consonant sound and a vowel sound
self-conscious emotions
emotions such as embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt, and envy which emerge after 8 months with infants’ growing consciousness of self
basic trust versus mistrust
For Erikson, the first stage of infancy in which children either come to trust others as reliable and kind and to regard the world as safe or come to mistrust others as insensitive and hurtful and regard the world as unpredictable and threatening
autonomy versus shame and doubt
For Erikson, the second stage of infancy, during which children develop a sense of themselves as competent to accomplish tasks or as not competent