Chapter 1

Development
Systematic continuities and changes in the individual that occur between conception and death.
Systematic Changes vs. Continuity
Orderly, patterned changes versus staying the same
Maturation
One of two important processes that underlie developmental change. Biological unfolding of the indivdual according to species typical biological inheritance and individual person’s biological inheritance.
Learning
One of two processes that underlie developmental change. Our experiences produce relatively permanent changes in our feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. We change in response to learning from our environments.
Goals Developmentalists Pursue
Describe, Explain, and Optimize Development
Normative Development
Typical patterns of change
Ideographic Development
Individual variations in patterns of change
Development as a Holistic Process
Incorporates physical growth, cognitive growth, and psychosocial aspects
Plasticity
Capacity for change in response to positive or negative life experiences. Development chan change abruptly if one’s life changes. Ex: Highly aggressive children who are intensely disliked by peers often improve their social statsu after learning and practicing social skills that popular children display.
Thomas Hobbe’s view of children
Doctrine of original sin held that children are inherently selfish egoists who must be restrained by society.
Jean Jacques Rousseau’s view of children
Doctrine of innate purity- children are born knowing right from wrong, but society corrupts.
John Locke’s view of development
Infant mind is a tabula rasa or “blank slate” and children have no inborn tendencies. How they turn out depends entirely on their wordly experiences.
Baby Biographies
Period in 19th century when investigators recorded their own children’s development. Charles Darwin notable (incorporated evolution theory into infant development)
G. Stanley Hall
Conducted first large scale scientific investigations of children, and is considered to be the founder of developmental psychology. Developed questionaire where  he discovered children’s understanding of the world grows rapidly during childhood and that the logic of children is not very logical at all.
Creator of Adolescence
G. Stanley Hall
Sigmund Freud
Creator of psycholanalytic Theory. Id, Ego, Superego. Oral, Anal, etc. stages.
Theory
Set of conception and propositions that describe and explain some aspect of experience. Good theories can predict future events through hypotheses.
Scientific Method
Use of objective and replicable methods to gather data for the purpose of testing a theory or hypothesis.
Reliable
Yields consistent information over time and across observers.
Valid
Measures what it is supposed to measure. An instrument must be reliable before it can be valid. Yet, reliability by itself cannot guarantee validity.
Self Report Methodologies
Interviews and Questionnaires, and the clinical method.
Williams, Bennett, and Best 1975
Questionnaire that determined 5 year old children are knowledgeable about gender stereotypes. Give descriptions of characters, and they will tell you which gender they are according to the characteristics.
Shortcomings with interviews and questionnaires
Cannot be used with young children who cannot read, write, or speak. May be biased answers.
Clinical Method
Participant presented with task or stimulus, and after they respond interviewer asks second question to clarify participants original answer. It is hard to compare answers of participants who are asked different questions, but the tailored questions give investigators a rich understanding.
Observational Methodologies
Naturalistic Observation and Structured Observation
Naturalistic Observation
Observing in everyday surroundings. Can be limited by observer influence,and also by behaviors that are unlikely to be observed (thievery).
Time Sampling Procedure
Each child observed during 10 minute play sessions on three different days.
Haskett and Kistner (1991)
Compared social behaviors of nonabused and abused preschoolers. Time sampling procedure was used. It was determined that abused children display more aggressive acts and are unattractive playmates who are likely to be disliked and rejected.
Structured Observations
Participants exposed to controlled settings in laboratory.
Leon Kuczynski (1983)
Structured observation. Got children to help him with a boring task/left them in a room with toys/some children continued to work and others played with toys.
Tronick et al. (2005)
Studied interaction between 4 month olds and mothers, to study impact of cocaine. Cocaine exposed infants and mothers did not appear to be engaged in social interaction that facilitates social and cognitive development in later months.
Bamburg (2004)
Case study of teenage boys which found that people make sense of themselves and others through socially interactive conversation. By talking about other people, you demonstrate where you feel your own moral ground is, and communicate that stance to others.
Limitations of Case Studies
Cannot generalize, cannot compare easily because information is so specific.
Ethnography
Live within subculture or culture for months or years. Highly subjective method.
Psychophysiological Methods
Techniques that measure relationship between physiological responses and behavior.
Examples of Psychophysiological Measurement
Heart Beat, Brain function (EEG).
Ways of Detecting Relationships
Correlational, Experimental, and Cross Cultural Designs
Correlational Design
Relationship of two or more variables to see if they are meaningfully related.
Correlation Coefficient
Symbolized by r, this statistic provides a numerical estimate of the strength and direction ranging from +1.00 to -1.00
Experimental Design
Provides a precise assessment of the cause and effect relationship that exists between two variables. Independent variables represent treatments presented to participants, dependent variables is the result.
Confounding Variable
A possible unknown third variable, which is why we use random assignment to gain experimental control.
Random Assignment
Used for experimental control. Each research participant has an equal probability of being exposed to each experimental treatment.
Ecological Validity
Confirm laboratory findings in the real world.
Natural (quasi-) Experiment
Observe consequences of a natural event that participants have experienced.
Cross Cultural Designs
Guard against the over generalization of findings by comparing cultures.