Chapter 10 – Skin Disorders

What is dermatology?
Branch of medical science that studies and treats the skin and it’s disorders
What is a dermatologist?
Physician who treats skin disorders and diseases
What are lesions?
Structural changes in tissues caused by damage or injury.

What are 3 types of lesions?
PrimarySecondaryTertiary
What are characteristics of primary lesions?
Lesions in early stages of development or change. They are flat, non palpable changes in the skin color – such as macules or by elevations formed by fluid such as vesicles or pustules.
Examples of primary lesions (9 examples)
BullaTuberclePustuleNodule/TumorMaculePapuleVesicleWhealCyst
What are some secondary lesions?(7 Examples)
CrustExcoriationFissureKeloidScaleScarUlcer
What is acne?
Chronic inflammatory skin disorder of the sebaceous glands characterized by comedones and blemishes. Usually related to hormonal changes. Also known as Acne Simplex and Acne Vulgaris
What is a comedone or blackhead?
Non inflamed build up of cells, sebum, and debris in a follicle which has oxidized.
What is a Furuncle?
Subcutaneous abscess filled with pus.

Also, called boils, which is caused by bacteria in the glands or hair follicles.

What are milia or whiteheads?
Whitesh, pearl like masses of sebum and dead cells under the skin w/no visible opening, hardened and closed over. Common in dry skin and around the eyes, cheeks and forehead. Milia is a name of the disorder of the sebaceous glands.
What is seborrhea?
Severe oiliness of the skin, abnormal secretion of the sebaceous glands.

What is Rosacea or Acne Rosacea?
Inflammation of the skin, chronic congestion primarily on the cheeks and nose. Characterized by redness, dilation of the blood vessels and in severe cases the formation of papules and pustules. The cause is unknown, but may be due to bacteria, mites or fungus.
What is the name of the disorder caused by sebum deficiency?
Asteatosis
What is sebaceous hyperplasia?
Benign lesions frequently seen in oiler places of the face.

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These overgrowth sebaceous glands appear similar to open comedones and are often doughnut shaped, with sebaceous material in the center.

Name 4 disorders of the sudoriferous glands.
Anidrosis Bromhidrosis Hyperhidrosis Miliaria Rubra
What is Atopic dermatitis?
A rash- excessive inflammation from allergies.
What is the name of inflammatory, painful itching disease of the skin, acute or chronic in nature, with dry or moist lesions?
Eczema
What is herpes simplex 1?
The strain of herpes virus that causes fever blisters and cold sores, recurring contagious viral infection consisting of a vesicle or group of vesicles on a red swollen base.

Blisters usually appear on the lips or nostrils. Simplex 2 infects the genitals.

What is chloasma?
Increased pigmentation – liver spots
What is Psoriasis?
A skin disease characterized by red patches covered w/white scales caused by over exfoliation of skin cells replicating too fast. Usually found in patches on scalp, elbows, knees, chest and lower back.

What is Hyperpigmentation?
Overproduction of pigment
What is Hypopigmentation?
Lack of pigment
Name 3 Hypopigmentation disorders
AlbinismLeukodermaVitiligo
Name some Hyperpigmentation disorders
ChloasmaMelasmaNevusStain
Name 3 types of skin cancer.
Basal CarcinomaSquamous CarcinomaMalignant Melanoma
What is a verucca?
Warts – Hypertrophy of papillae caused by a virus.
What is impetigo?
Bacterial infection of the skin that often occurs in children. Characterized by small blisters or crusty lesions filled w/bacteria – Very contagious
What is Tinea?
Fungal infections – athletes foot
What is Tinea Corporis?
Ringworm – Highly contagious
What is tinea versicolor?
A yeast infection which inhibits melanin production.
Name n explain 4 stages of acne.
Grade I – Minor breakouts, mostly open comedones & few papules.Grade II – Many closed comedones, more open comedones and occasional papules and pustules.Grade III – Red & Inflamed – many comedones, papules and pustules.

Grade IV – Cystic Acne – Cysts w/comedones, papules and pustules. Inflammation is present and scare formation is common.

Name 4 causes of Acne.
Genetics/HeredityClogged PoresBacteriaTriggers – Hormone, stress, cosmetics and skincare products.
Under what circumstances can an esthetician perform services on a client with an infectious disease?
Never
How can you help a client with Rosacea?
Advise the client to see the doctor.
Which of the following is a disorder of the sudorifierous glands?Miliaria RubraPsoriasisContact dermatitisEczema
Miliaria Rubra
What are sebaceous glands attached to ?
Hair Follicles
From which protein is the epidermis made?
Keratin
Diagnosing skin conditions is not within the scope of your?
License
When the skin is injured it can cause
Lesions
Lesions that are in the early stage of development are called?
Primary
The medical term for freckles is?
Macules
What is the correct term for an insect bite, skin allergy reaction or sting that becomes itchy and swollen?
Wheal
Scratching or scraping the skin can produce a/an?
excoriation
A thin plate of epidermal cells is called
Scale
What is the medical term for chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands?
Acne
Inflammation, dry or oily scaling or crusting, and/or itchiness is caused by?
Seborrheic dermatitis
Pearl like masses of white material under the skin w/no visible openings are called?
Milia
When oilier areas of the face develop benign lesions, it is called?
Sebaceous Hyperplasia
Disorders of the sudoriferous glands include ?AnhidrosisHyperhidrosisBromhidrosisAll answers
All answers
A condition characterized by bacteria and yeast that causes a foul odor is called?
Bromhidrosis
Perspiration deficiency caused by failure of the sweat glands is called?
Anhidrosis
When excessive heat exposure causes an acute inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands it is called?
Miliaria Rubra
Atopic Dermatitis is ?
A rash
A condition characterized by painful itching and inflammation with dry or moist lesions is called.

Ezcema
The medical term for hives is called?
Urticaria
Pruritis is a condition characterized by
Itching
Spicy foods, alcohol, caffeine, exposure to extreme temperatures, heat and stress aggravate?
Rosacea
Red patches covered with white-silver scales on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest and lower back are characteristics of
Psoriasis
The medical term for a distended capillary is
Telangiectasia
Estheticians commonly develop skin allergies on the ?
CheeksFingers and PalmsBacks of hands
What can exposure to an allergen cause?
Allergic Reaction
Allergic reactions to estheic treatments are commonly found in these areas?
Scalp, hairline, forehead and neckline
Substances that can irritate the skin are called
Caustic
What is a port wine stain?
Vascular nevus
The general term for a dark blotchy spot on the skin is called?
Hyperpigmentation
When the entire body lacks melanin, it is called?
Albinism
Congenital spotty hypopigmentation is called?
Leukoderma
What is the medical term for a callus?
keratoma
Keratosis pilaris can be treated y an estetician with a _____________ service.
Exfoliation
A thickening of the skin caused by a mass of keratinized cells is called?
Hyperkeratosis
A non viral flap of skin is called a ?
skin tag
What causes 90% of skin cancers?
Sun Exposure
Photoaging can be seen in the
20s or before
Eighty percent of sun damage occurs by the age of
18
What is the most deadly form of skin cancer?
Malignant Melanoma
What describes the appearance of malignant melanoma?
AsymmetricalUneven bordersUneven colors
This term is interchangeable with infections or communicable
Communicable disease
The medical term for cold sores or fever blisters is ?
Herpes Simplex Virus
What is the medical term for ringworm?
Tinea corporis
Comedones and blemishes are symptoms of what condition?
Acne
P. Acne bacteria are ______________, meaning they can’t live in the presence of oxygen.
Anaerobic
Nodules w/deep pockets of infection are called.
Cysts
Acne in the dermis that causes depressed and raised scars is called
Cystic Acne
All male hormones are called
androgens
Which group of people are most likely to have adult acne?MenWomenRetireesMidwesterners
Women
When the chin develops acne, it can be caused by?
Hormones
Which type of product causes clogged pores?
comedogenic
Identify the acne irritants:MSG and minerals obtained from the oceanIodides and fast foodKelp and cheeseAll answers
All answers
Grade I acne symptoms include
minor breakouts, mostly open comedones, a few papules
Red and inflamed skin, many comedones, and papules and pustules are characteristics of which grade acne?
Grade 3more than 25 lesions
Medications that treat acne include?Tretinoin (Retin A)AdapaleneAzelaic AcidAll answers
All Answers
What is an Ulcer?
e.g in rodent ulcerAtropy- Loss of thickness or substance of the epidermis, dermis or other tissue.
Commonly prescribed topical antibiotics solutions.

Clindamycin (Cleocin T- Topical)Erythromycin (Staticin, Eryderm, Erymax)Tetracycline (Topicycline)Meclocycline (Meclan Cream)
Name 8 glands in the body
ThyroidPituitaryAdrenalParathyroidPancreasPinealThymusReproductive
What do androgens do to the skin?
Cause the sebaceous glands to enlarge, and increase in activity.
What is the composition of sebum?
SqualeneCholesterolTriglyceridesFree Fatty AcidsWaxes
What is a crust?
Dried remains of serum – yellow in color
Describe a vesicle
Small blister filled with serumless than .5 cm in diameter(examples – papule filled with fluid – herpes simplex, herpes zoster and eczema)
Describe pustule
Pus filled vesicle, small elevation in the skin containing pus e.g. acne, rosacea(staphylococcal and streptococcal infections)
Describe a scale
Abnormality in the formation of keratin in the horny layer.

Cells not shed in a normal manner in the stratum corneum in excess resulting in thickening and flaking.

Describe Macule
Small, flat, distinct area of discoloration up to 1cm in diameter (freckles if brown) (patch if red and larger than 1cm)
Describe Nodule
Well defined, solid elevation in the skin, deeper and larger than a papule, usually larger than 1cm. It is a collection of cells or metabolic substances in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue. e.

g. acne and rodent ulcer