Chapter 11

What controls our ability to retrieve information?
Our brain maturation and once that has occurred, retrieving what we know depends on how we initially stored the desired information and the search for specific info must be selective and focused. Also, how something is retrieved at one time affects how it will retrieved later on.
What makes retrieval easier?
When related pieces of information are stored in close association with one another and the learner is relaxed. Information that has been stored in a haphazardly will turn up only after a great deal of searching.
Discriminative stimulus
sets the occasion for a particular response-reinforcement contingency to be in effect.
Encoding specificity
When learners engage in thought processes similar to those they previously used when storing the information
Activation model of memory
information in an active state is what we might think of as being in working memory, whereas inactive information is in LT memory.
Spreading activation
a starting point in LT memory might be an idea triggered by something in the environment.
Retrieval cues
Hints about where to find info, which activate the part of LT memory where a desired piece of info can be found.
Identify cues
Cues that are identical to the information an individual is trying to retrieve.
Associate cues
Cues related to the words that are being searched for.
Frame cues
An organization structure that provides numerous cues that should focus retrieval efforts.
Superimposed meaningful structure
Mnemonics
Contextual cues
When the physical environment in which something has been learned also facilitates retrieval; exposure to certain characteristics of that environment can also help us remember.
Downsides of cues
they may occasionally set boundaries on the areas of long-term memory we search and may direct a learner’s search to parts of LT memory other than those that hold the desired info.
Construction in retrieval
People often retrieve only a portion of the information they’ve previously stored and then fill in the holes based on what’s logical or consistent with their existing knowledge.
Flashbulb memory
Memories of experiencing or hearing about significant and emotion-laden events are often quite vivid, detailed ones with a seemingly snapshot quality to them
Misinformation effect
People’s memory for an event may become distorted when they subsequently receive inaccurate information about the event.
How can people’s recollections be influenced?
By info presented sometime after they learned whatever they’re retrieving.
Constructive retrieval
Retrieval is almost entirely constructive and it enables people to produce info beyond what they’ve specifically stored.
Downside to constructive retrieval
New memories have little or no basis > False memories, which can be increased with plausibility.
What can occur when recalling an event?
Recalling an event we’ve previously experienced often affects our later memory for the event, especially if embellished.
How can an individual self-monitor during a retrieval process?
an individual may reflect on their recollections in an effort to determine whether they’re remembering something accurately or inaccurately.
Metacognition
the ability to take such factors into account when self-monitoring the accuracy of memories improves over the course of childhood
What are some appropriate precautions when probing people’s memories?
1. Sense of confidence is not a good indication of accuracy.
2. Distortions and fabrications can occur due to the way questions are phrased, as well as feedback received.
Decay
Information can gradually fade away when info is used rarely or not at all.

Exception: When details are surprising, personally significant, or distinctive.

Interference
Learning one set of verbal material interferes with the ability to recall another set, caused by interruption or mixing up.

– theory of confusion: a person has learned numerous responses and gets them mixed up.

Fan effect
Multiples associations with a concept can slow down retrieval time for info connected with the concept.
Repression
an experience is so painful that we tend either not to remember it all or else to remember only isolated fragments of it.
Retrieval Failure
Failure to retrieve occurs when people neglect to look in the part of LT memory that holds the desired info; retrieval cues are missing.
Prospective memory
Failure to retrieve involve forgetting to do something that needs to be done at a future time.
(Re)construction Error
When outside information gets into the memory or the learner personally added information; misinformation effect.
Failure to store
Information never got into long-term memory in the first place.
Infantile Amnesia
People remember little or nothing about specific events in their lives that occurred before age 3.
Plausible explanations for infantile amnesia
1. Brain structures that are actively involved in explicit memories, such as the hippocampus and frontal cortex, aren’t fully developed at birth.
2. Talking about experiences enhances memory and toddlers don’t have the language skills.
External retrieval cue
a physical reminder outside of the memory system.
What role do questions play in the teaching process?
1. Lower-level questions > students retrieve something pretty much as they’ve store it in memory.
2. Higher-level questions > students elaborate on the retrieved info.
3. Alert teachers to students’ misconceptions.
4. Provide a feedback mechanism.
5. Discover how much students have learned from a current lesson.
Factual knowledge
Knowing specific pieces of information.
Conceptual knowledge
knowing more general structures and interrelationships among pieces of info.
Procedural knowledge
knowing how to do something and possibly applying certain criteria in choosing the procedure to us
Metacognitive knowledge
knowing about the nature of thinking and about effective learning strategies, and being aware of one’s own cognitive processes.
Wait time
The amount of time teachers allow to pass after their own students’ questions and comments.
– Students benefit tremendously simply from being given a little time to think.
How can classroom assessments affect a student’s storage process?
1. By promoting effective storage process
2. By encouraging review
3. By requiring review during the assessment itself
4. By providing feedback