Chapter 12 – Skin Care Products

What are functional ingredients?
Ingredients in cosmetic products that allow the products to spread, give them  body and texture and specific form such as a lotion, cream or gel.
What are performance ingredients?
INgredients in cosmetic products that cause the actual changes in the appearance of the skin.
What is Phytotherapy
The use of plant extracts for theraputic benefits.
How is cosmetics defined by the FDA?
Articles that are intended to be rubbed poured sprinkled or otherwised applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing beautifying promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance.
What are cosmeceuticals?
Products intended to improve the skin’s health and appearance.
What are Hypoallergenic ingredients?
Ingredients that may be less likely to cause allergic reactions.
What are noncomedogenic.

Ingredients that; will not clogged pores or cause comedones.
What do emollients do for your skin?
Lubricate, moisturize and prevent water loss.
Name all the emollients that you know.
Oils from earthoils from plantsfatty acidsfatty alcoholsfatty esterssilicones
What is comedogenicity?
is a tendancy of any topical substance to cause or worsen a buildup of dead cells in the follicle leading to a development of a comedo.
What is carbomers?
Certain vehicle ingredients added to thicken products or help suspend ingredients that are hard to mix into a product.
How do you describe preservatives?
Important functional ingredients in many skin care and cosmetic products. Preservatives prevent bacteria and other microbes from living in products. without preservatives products could easily be contaminated with bacteria fungi molds or other microbes that could cause disease in a person using the product.

What are 3 basic forms of cleansers..
A facewashlotion andcreams
What is the name of detegent type foaming cleanser w/neutral or slightly acidic PH
A face wash
What skin type uses a face wash type of cleanser;
Oily or combination skin type
What is a cleansing lotion?
It is a water based emulsion for normal and combination skin.
What is a cleansing cream?
Oil based emulsion used primarily to dissolve makeup and dirt (good for dry or mature skin);
What are different types of toners?
Freshners have the lowest alcohol (0 to 4%) and are beneficial for dry and mature skin as well as for sensitive skin.Toners have an alcohol content of 5 to 15% and are designed for sue on normal and combination skin. They tone, or tighten the skin.Astrigent may have an alcohol content of up to 35% and are used for oily and acne skin.
What does exfoliation mean?
The term exfoliation refers to the peelign or sloughing of the horney layer of the skin.

What are 2 types of exfoliation?
What is mechanical exfoliation?
It is the method of physically rubbing dead cells of the skin(granualar scrubs, brushing machines)
What is chemical exfoliation?
In a chemical exfoliation dead skin cells are dissolved by chemical agents (AHA, BHA and enzymes)
What is the function of the clay mask?
They draw impuritties to the surface fo the skin as they dry and tighten. Clay also stimulates circulation and temporarily contracts the pores of the skin.
What is cream or gel mask designed for?
They are designed to nourish and moisturize the skin rather than deep cleanse it.
What are paraffin wax masks designed for?
They are used to warm the skin and promote penetration of ingredients deeper into the skin through the heat trapped under the surface.

What are the contraindications for paraffin masks?
Sensitive SkinSkin with capillary problemsOily skinskin w/blemishes
What skin type would benefit from modelage masks(thermal or heating mask)?
Dry, mature skin or skin that is dull looking.
What are serums?
Serums are made w/vitamins, lipids or antioxidants, and are usually thinner liquids. They are chemically formulated with smaller molecules that are able to penetrate further into the skin.

They are applied underneath moisturizers.

What are hydrators formulated with?
Hydrators are formulated with humectants that attact water to the skin.
What is a treatment cream designed for? (night creams)
They are designed to moisturize and conodition the skin especially during sleep, when normal tissue repair is taking place.
What are ampoules?
Ampoules are small, sealed vials containing a single application of a highgly concetrated extract in a water or oil base.

What ingredients benefit the skin?
Active ingredients (performance ingredients)
Which ingredients don’t work on the skin, but perform a function that helps the product?
Inactive ingredients (functional ingredients)
What do antioxidants do?
They neutralize free radicals before they attach themselves to the cell membrane and destroy the cell.
What are binders?
substances that bind, hold products together (glycerine)
What do emollients do?
Lie on the surface of the skin to prevent water loss, smooth and soften the skin.
What are healing agents?
Substances such as chamomile or aloe that heal the skin.
What do humectants do?
They draw moisture to the skin and soften the surface.
What do lubricants do?
They coat the skin and reduce friction.

What do preservatives do?
Kill bacteria and prevent products from spoiling
What are solvents?
Substances that dissolve other ingredients.
What do sufactants do?
Allow the cosmetic to be able to slip across onto the skin.
What are vehicles?
Spreading agents and other chemicals necessary to the formulation of a cosmetic (delivery system)
What ingredient can be a powerful antiseptic and solvent?
What is the name of the powder obtained from sodium borate?
Boric Acid
Which ingredient is used as a super moisturizer?
Which ingredient is an excellent skin softener?
Glycerin (humectant and skin softner)
Which herb is commonly used in solution with alcohol and water as an astringent?
Witch Hazel
What is used as a dusting powder and in ointment for some skin conditions?
Zinc Oxide
What is the name of the sea product containing minerals and phytohormones?
What ingredients are the basis for aromatherapy?
Essential Oils
What is used in cold cream, hand lotions because of its ability to help heal wounds and skin ulcers and to stimulate the growth of healthy tissue?
What is derived from the chamomile plant and is effective on sensitive skin because of its anti-inflammatory and sootthing properties?
What is the drying ingredient with antibacterial properties?
Benzyl Peroxide
What is anti-inflammatory plant extract?
Calendula (best for acne)
What agency is responsible for enforcing rules and regulations regarding products for public consumption?
In what order should all ingredients be listed on the lable of the product?
Descending order, according to the amount of the ingredient the product contains.

Where should you send consumer complaints?
The manufacturer and CC the FDA
What agency regulates the advertising of cosmetics?
The FTC – Federal Trade Commision
Which of the following soften and smooth the skin:AntioxidantsEmollientsFragrancesLubricants
What attracts moisture to the skin’s surface?;
If the client is allergic to sea weed, what can’t you use?
Anything containing algae
The FDA has jurisdiction over ?
Consumer complaints
What is a chelating agent?
A chemicaal that is added to cosmetics to improve the efficiency of the preservative. Chelating agents work by breaking down the cell walls of bacteria and other microbes.
Name all the delivery systems
Ingredients that improve cell metabolism and oxygenation
What are peptides?
Peptides are chains of amino acids used in skin care products to produce changes in teh skin’s appearance.

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Peptides have been shown to help aging skin by stimulating the fibroblasts, the cells that produce collagen to improve skin firmness and soften wrinkles.

Name all the masks we know
Non Setting MaskClay MaskAlgae or Seaweed masksModelage MaskParaffin waxCustom designed mask
What is an esthetician’s most important tool?
The quality of the skin can be _____________ improved with professional skin care products.
Skin care ingredients can be studied at a ______________ level.
How many different products must you know about to effectively practice professional skin care?
A broad spectrum of products.
Cosmetics are distinguished from drugs by this act.
Cosmetic Act of 1938
According to the cosmetic Act of 1938, products that are made to affect the structures and/or functions of the human body are:
What category of ingredients cause the actual changes in the appearance of the skin?
Products that avoid cloggin pores or causing comedones are called
Non comedongenic
Anhydrous products include:a Lip balmsb Petrolatum-based products c oil serumsd all answers
All Answers Lip BalmsPetroleum-based productsOil serums 
Substances used to lubricate and moisturize the skin are called?
Substances that coat the skin and reduce friction belong to this category.
Ingredients that are beneficial to dry skin are?A Fatty AcidsB SebumC Rubbing AlcoholD Fatty materials
Fatty Acids
______________ include oleic acid, steric acid and caprylic acid.
Fatty Acids
Surfactants improve ______________________
______________ reduce surface tension of dirt and oils on the skin’s surface and form an emulsion to lift them from the skin.
Substances that are mixable with water are called
Water Soluble
A treatment where aromatherapy oils are inhaled for their therapeutic benefits is called?
Products that enhance the effectiveness of a preservative are called?
chelating agent
Which of the following substances adds color to cosmetics and are certified by the FDA?
Color Agents
Substances used to adjust the pH of products are called?
pH adjustors
A solvent is a
Substance that dissolves another substance
Plant based ingredients are?
Which of the following are used as natural exofoliants?A jojoba beadsB Ground NutsC Various seedsD All answers
All Answers;Jojoba beadsGround nutsVarious Seeds;
Which acids have a beneficial chemical effects on teh skin?
AHAs and BHAs
Identify the hydroxy acids:A Glycolic and LaticB Citric and SalicylicC Malic and TartaricD All answers
all answers;GlycolicLaticCitricSalicylicMalicTartaric;
Which acids exfoliate by loosening the bonds between cells in teh surface of the corneum?
What ingredients dissolve kerattin proteins in the surface of the corneum?
You can lighten/brighten your skin with what products?
Lighteners and Brighteners
Which of the following products should your clients apply without fail after an exfoliation service?Moisturizeranti-irritantsunscreenfoundation
Antioxidants play this role in skincare
neutralize free radicals
Which ingredients help strengthen the immune system and stimulate the metabolism?
Poly and Beta glucans
The functions of glycoproteins include?
enhancing cellular metabolism, which boosts oxygen uptake in the cell.
Closed, bilayered spheres that encapsulate ingredients, target their delivery tto specific tissues of the skin, and control their release are called?
Skin care products use vitamins, such as C and E for their ______________ properties.
Sunscreens use these 2 types of ingredients.
natural and chemical
Vitamin A:A Strengthens the immune systemB removes impaired cellsC Stimulates Cell RepairD is an anti-irritant
CStimulates cell repair
Retinoic acid ____________ the skin.
The FDA regulates these important aspects of cosmetics.A Safety issuesB Claims made for a productC Labeling issuesD All answers
D all answers;Saftey issuesClaims made for a productLabeling issues
When the skin becomes excessively red or the client complains of a burning you should immediently
apply cool water
Performing a test patch is the best way to do what?
avoid allergic reactions
Which of the products below is formed by decomposition of oils or fats, it is an excellent skin softener and humectant and a very strong water binder.
Willow bark, wintergreen and sweet birch are sources of which acid?
Salicylic Acid
Sulfur in skin care products
reduces oil glands activity and; dissolves the skin’s dry dead cells
Which of the following is marine based?A AllatoinB AzuleneC Kojic acidD Algae
Which of these functions pertain to witch hazel?A astringentB antisepticC toningD all answers
D all answers AstringentAntisepticToning
Aromatherapy treats:A MindB SpiritC BodyD All answers
d all answersMindBodySpirit
When you use plant extracts for therapeutic benefits, it is called?
The sense of smell pertains to which system?
Olfactory system
Vitamin C Ester in skin care preparations stimulates?
Identify the natural ingredients that can positively impact mature skin:A Green teaB Squalene oilC DipotassiumD All answers
D All answers Green TeaSqualene oilDipotassium
DMAE (dimethyletthanolamine):
boosts the effects of other antioxidants
What do topical ingredients need to most effectively treat the skin?
High tech delivery systems
Which of the following represent categories of skin care.A exfoliants and moisturizersB toners serums and ampoulesC masks sunscreens and hydratorsD all answers
DAll answers
When products are rinsed clean w/water and don’t strip the skins natural acid mantle, they are considered ideal as
Cleansing gels are detergent type foaming cleaners for
Oily Skin
A product that is soley used to remove eye makeup or heavier makeup is called.
makeup remover
What is the function of a freshener?
Restores the skins natural pH after cleansing and hydrating the skin.
Exfoliants improve?
The skin’s ability to retain moistures and lipids.Skin textureProduct penetration
Products that aid in extractions are called?
Peeling off the top layer of the stratum corneum is done by an
Contraindications for using harsh peeling techniques include
Sensitive skinreactive skinacne prone skin 
Keratolytic enzymes help speed up the break down of ?
Benefits derived from masks and packs include
The 2 types of masks are
setting and non setting
Premature skin aging due to irritation occurs because?
collagenase to break down collagen
Masks that contain oils emollients and humectants are called
non setting
Thermal masks containing gypsm are also called
Single applications of highly concentrated extracts in a water or oil base are called
Lotions hydrators and cremes are all referred to as
UVA cause?
Skin Aging