Chapter 15 Vocab

According to Max Weber, a hierarchical authority structure that uses task specialization, operates on the merit principle and behaves with impersonality. Bureaucracies govern modern states
One of the key inducements used by the political machines. A patronage job, promotion, or contract is one that is given for political reasons rather than merit or competence alone.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
Civil Service
A system of hiring and promotion based on the merit principle and the desire to a create a nonpartisan government service
Merit Principle
The idea that hiring should be based on entrance exams and promotion ratings to produce administration by people with talent and skill.
Hatch Act
A federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics
Office of Personnel Management
The office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government, using elaborate rules in the process
Senior Executive Service (SES)
An elite cadre of about 9,000 federal government managers, established by the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, who are mostly career officials but include some political appointees who don’t require Senate confirmation
Independent Regulatory Agency
A government agency responsible for some sector of the economy, making and enforcing rules to protect the public interest.

It also judges disputes over these rules.

Government Corporation
A government organization that, like business corporations, provides a service that could be provided by the private sector and typically charges for its services. The U.S Postal Service is an example.

Independent Executive Agency
The government not accounted for by cabinet departments, independent regulatory agencies, and government corporations. Its administrators are typically appointed by the president and serve at the president’s pleasure. NASA is an example.
Standard Operating Procedures
Better known as SOPs, these procedures are used by bureaucrats to bring uniformity to complex organizations. Uniformity improves fairness and makes personnel interchangeable.
Administrative Discretion
The authority of administrative actors to select among various responses to a given problem. Discretion is the greatest when routines, or standard operating procedures, do not fit a case
Street-Level Bureaucrats
a phrase coined by Michael Lipsky, referring to those bureaucrats who are in constant contact with the public and have considerable administrative discretion.
Incentive System
According to Charles Schultze, a more effective and efficient policy than command-and-control; in the incentive system, market-like strategies are used to manage public policy.

The lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities for which government rules had been established and that bureaucracies had been created to administer.
Iron Triangles
A mutually dependent relationship between bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees and subcommittees. Iron triangles dominate some areas of domestic policymaking.

Command-and-Control Policy
According to Charles Schultze, the existing system of regulation whereby government tells business how to reach certain goals, checks that these commands are followed, and punishes offenders.
Policy Implementation
The stage of policymaking between the establishment of a policy and the consequences of the policy for the people for whom it affects. Implementation involves translating the goals and objectives of a policy into an operating, ongoing program
The use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector.

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Regulations pervade the daily lives of people and institutions.

GS(General Schedule) Rating
A schedule for federal employees, ranging from GS-1 to GS 18, by which salaries can be keyed to rating and experience.
Executive Orders
Regulations originating from the executive branch. Executive orders are on method presidents use to control bureaucracy.