Chapter 2

Why should we be aware of the social history of special education?
1. Sheds perspective on current issues2. Helps us understand changing cultural contexts of schools3. Decreases the possibility of holding on to policies that don’t work
What are some prevailing issues in special education?
1. Service delivery alternatives2. Ensuring every student with a disability receives a proper education3.

Overrepresentation of students from certain racial and ethnic groups

What are the major components of the No Child Left Behind act?
1. Strong accountability for results2. Increased flexibility and local control of schools3. Teaching methods based on scientific research4.

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Expanded options for parents5. Highly qualified teachers

What are the major components of the Individual with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA)?
1. Nondiscriminatory identification, assessment, and evaluation2. Least restrictive environment3. Individualized educational programs4. Procedural safeguards
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
provides protection for those with disabilities who do not fit the definitions under IDEA.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
is civil rights legislation that prohibits discrimination and requires accessibility to buildings and their physical facilities.
Conceptual framework
formulating own view
Pedro Ponce de Leon: Teaching Deaf Adolescents (1590)
Ponce de Leon instructed wealthy boys who were deaf, these wealthy boys needed to know how to read in order to qualify for their inheritance.
Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard (1799)
A young boy (Victor) was marginalized, Itard generated five goals to the mental and moral education of the young boy.1. Interest him in social life2. Awaken his nervous sensibility through stimulation3. Extending the range of his ideas and increasing social contact4.

Introducing him to speech5. Exercise in simple mental operations

Samuel Gridley Howe
worked with Laura Bridgeman, who was stricken with scarlet fever that left her blind and deaf. He developed a system similar to braille that allowed Laura to communicate with others.

Eugenics and Goddard
the science of human improvement by better breeding dominated social thinking in the 1900s. This led to the segregations and sterilization of individuals with cognitive disabilities. – Criminals, prostitutes, and individuals with the cognitive abilities of 12 year olds or younger were sterilized.
Elizabeth Farrell
worked with mainly students of immigrant families who were believed to be idiots, she worked with cripples, and “misfits”. Her classroom emphasized motor skills and allowed for increased emphasize on socialization and self-expression.