Chapter 2 and Chapter 3

culture
material and symbolic tools that accumulate through time and are passed on through social processes and provide resources for the developing child
material tools
cultural tools including physical objects and observable patterns of behavior such as family routines and social practices
symbolic tools
cultural tools such as abstract knowledge, beliefs, and values
True or False
All tools of culture are symbolic and material at the same time.
True
mediation
the process through which tools organize people’s activities and ways of relating to their environments
explicit instruction
the social process in which children are purposefully taught to use the resources of their culture; uses symbolic communication (thus, we do not have to teach things in the present via example; i.e. we can use language to teach US history to kids); animals cannot do this
social enhancement
the most basic social process of learning to use cultural resources, in which resources are used simply because others’ activities have made them available in the immediate environment
cumulative cultural evolution
the dynamic ongoing process of cultural change that is a consequence of variation that individuals have produced in the cultural tools they use
niche construction
the active shaping and modification of individuals’ environments by the individuals own behaviors, activities, and choices
co-construction
the shaping of environments through interactions between children and their caregivers, siblings, neighbors, and friends
Baldwin effect
the role of cultural factors in determining which phenotypes are adaptive