Chapter 2 Understanding Reading Problems

Response to Intervention is a set of regulations under what act?
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA)
Discrepancy Model means waiting for
a two-year discrepancy between students’ measured reading achievements and their expected reading achievements. AKA Waiting to fail.
RTE consists of 3 components:
Universal screening for the early identification of students at risk of struggling in readingProvision of tiers of instruction ranging from the general education program to intensive intervention,sometimes in special educationContinuous monitoring of student progress
An IEP includes the 7 elements:
Current levels of educational performanceAnnual goals and short term objectivesExplanation of the need for special education and related servicesExplanation if the child cannot be mainstreamed in the general education classroomDescription and schedule of special education services providedAssessment of student progress, included needed accommodations
IDEA was reauthorized as
the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEIA) which was carefully aligned with provisions of NCLB (NEA 2004).
IDEIA provides alternate ways for identifying
a disability.
Under IDEIA, identified students must
meet the same state standards as all other students, including ELL students, with some exceptions for students with severe cognitive disability.

Under IDEIA, special education teachers are now required to be
“highly qualified”
RTI is a process that further refines IDEA with an assessment of the effectiveness of
a scientific, research based intervention in improving an identified child’s academic performance.
RTI identify 8 areas of low achievement, 6 in language arts.
oral expression, listening comprehension, basic reading skill, reading fluency skill, and reading comprehension
K-3 students are screened to determine
if they are at risk of not meeting prescribed benchmarks
If students do not meet benchmarks after scientifically valid interventions are applied
the RTI models provide for interventions in small groups to provide additional assistance
RTI is designed to identify
learning disabilities and ensure identified students receive appropriate instruction
Recommended principles of RTI
Preventing problemsemphasizing increasingly differentiated and intensified instruction or interventioninforming literacy instruction meaningfully through assessmentensuring strong collaboration among literacy professionals and cooperation among parents, teachers and studentsProviding for a comprehensive systematic approach to assessment and instruction for all students and teachersproviding instruction from well prepared teachers
Tier One encompasses
the general education program and all students
Effective core reading instruction in grades K-5 includes
pnonemic awareness and phonics instruction, fluency instruction, vocabulary instruction and comprehension instruction.
Tier-Two is Small Group InterventionStandard treatment call for
tutoring in small groups using an evidence-based approach. Focus is on accelerating reading growth so that students can catch up and progress monitoring for 6-8 weeks is recommended
Tier threeIntensive Intervention includes
validated treatment protocols along with progress monitoring and diagnostic assessment
The two approaches for implementing RTI are
Interactive Strategies ApproachComprehensive Intervention Model
Interactive Strategies Approach (ISA)is based on 5 major principles
Vygotskian perspectiveNot permitting disengagement or lack of participationsetting high expectationsinterface between classroom and support servicesplanning for success
ISA model goals:
Motivating to read and write/enjoyableAlphabeticsWord learningVocabularycomprehension
Comprehensive Intervention Model has 4 tiers:
Tier 1:Core classroom program with grouped differentiated instructionTier 2: small group instruction with intervention dependent on child’s needs.Tier 3 Reading Recovery in 1st grade and reserach based interventionTier 4 Intensive specialized education after services in tiers 1 – 3.

RTI assessment is designed to provide
information to help teachers and school districts meet the needs of individual students at risk of failure in literacy.
Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM), or benchmark assessment is used as the term for
universal screening that takes place in the regular classroom Tier 1 general education program.
Diagnostic Assessment is
a very thorough process that is used with students who fail to reach the cut score in Tier 1 assessment.
Progress Monitoring is
regular and systematic assessment of the trajectory of student gains in all tiers.

Mazes (modified cloze tests) are often used to check progress in reading comprehension.

Evidence based literacy programs for Tier 2 and 3 are
Leveled Reader’s Theater (Benchmark)Peer-Assisted Literacy Strategies (PALS) Series, Read Naturally, Reading Recovery
Important principles that serve to strengthen programs of intervention
Page 34 of Understanding Reading Problems
Members of the RTI team and their Roles
Page 35 of Understanding Reading Problems
RTI in middle and High school
page 36 and 37 of Understanding Reading Problems
English Language Learners and RTI
page 37-39 of Understanding Reading Problems