Chapter 2 Vocabulary

The ensemble of knowledge, beliefs, values, and learned ways of life shared by a group of people.

1. A person’s perception of the world and his or her place within it.  2. A person’s beliefs about the meaning, operation, and essence of the world.
Branch of philosophy that involves the study of good and bad, of right and wrong.
People who beieve that ethics do and should vary with social context.
People who maintain that there exist objective notions of right and wrong that hold across cultures and situations.

Ethical Standards
Criteria that help differentiate right from wrong.
Environmental Ethics
The application of ethical standards to relationships between humans and nonhuman entities.
A human-centered view of our relationship with the environment.
Describes values to ations, entities or proerties on the basis of their effects on all living things or on the integrity of the biotic realm in general.
Judges actions in terms of their benefit or harm to the integrity of whole ecological systems, which consist of biotic and abiotic elements and their relationships among them.
John Ruskin (1819-1900)
Critic who complained that people prized the material benefits that nature could provide but no longer appreciated its spiritual and aesthetic benefits.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Transcendentalist who viewed nature as a direct manifestation of the divine, emphasizing the soul’s oneness with nature and God.

Henry David Thoreau
Transcendentalist who viewed nature as a direct manifestation of the divine, emphasizing the soul’s oneness with nature and God.
Walt Whitman
Transcendentalist who viewed nature as a direct manifestation of the divine, emphasizing the soul’s oneness with nature and God.
John Muir (1868-1914)
Advocate for the preservation of wilderness; introduced the idea of the preservation ethic.
Preservation Ethic
We should protect the environment in a pristine, unaltered state.
Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946)
First professionally trained American forester; introduced the conservation ethic.

Conservation Ethic
Humans should put natural resources to use but also that we have a responsibility to manage them wisely.
Aldo Leopold (1887-1949)
University of Wisonconsin professor who arged that humans should view the themselves and the land as members of the same community and that people are obliged to treat the land in an ethical manner.
Deep Ecology
 Expresses two things 1. Self- Realization~ the awareness that humans are inseparable from nature and that the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the food we eat are products of the environment and integral parts of us. 2. Biocentric Equality~  if self- realization is true and we are a part of the environment then we should treat tje environment a we treat ourselves.
Idea that argues that the patriarchal stucture of society is a root cause of both social and environmental problems. 
Environmental Justice
“The fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environemental laws, regulations, and policies.”
The study if how people decide to use scarce resourcesto provide goods and services in the face of demand for them.
A social system that converts resources into goods and services.
Material commodities manufactued for and bought by individuals and businesses.
Work done for others as a form of business.
Subsistence Economy
Economies where people meet most or all of their needs directly from nature and do not purchase or trade for most of life’s necessities.
Capitalist market economy
A system where buyers and sellers interact to determine which goods and services to poduce, how much to produce, and how these shuld be produced and distributed.
Centrally planned economy
Economy in which the government determines in a top-down manner how to allocate resources.
Ecosystem Services
Essential servies that support the life that makes our economc activity possible.
Adam Smith (1723-1790)
Scottish philosopher who intoriduced the idea of classical economics.
Classical Economics
Idea that says that when people are free to pursue their own economic self-interest in a competitive marketplace, the marketplace will behave as if guided by “an invisble hand” that ensures that the society will benefit as a whole.
Neoclassical Economics
Branch of economics that examines the psychological factors underlying consumer choices, explaining market prices in terms of consumer preferences for uits of particular commodities.
Cost-benefit analysis
A method of neoclassical economics where estimated costs for a proposed action are totaled up and compared to the sum of benefits estimated to result from the action.
Costs or benefits of a transaction that involve people other than the buyer or seller.
External cost
Negative externality; a cost borne by someone not involved ina transaction.
Ecological economists
Economists who argue that a couple of centuries is not a very long period of time and that history suggests that civilizations do not, in he long term,overcome their environmental limitations.
Steady-state economy
Economy that does not grow or shrink, but is stable.
Environmental economists
Economists who tend to agree with ecological economists that economies are unsustainable if population growth is not reduced and resource use is not made more efficient; however, they maintain that we can accomplish these changes and attain sustainability with our current economic systems.
John Stuart Mill(1806-1873)
Britsh economist who hypothesized that as resources become harder to find and extract, economic growth will slow and eventually stabilize.
Gross DomesticProduct (GDP)
The total monetary value of final goods and services produced in the country each year.
Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI)
Calculated by taking conventional economic acticity and adding all positve contributions, then subtracting all negative impacts.
Nonmarket values
Values not usuallu included in the price of a good or service.
Market failure
Failure that occurs in a market when markets do not take into account the environment’s positive effecs on economies or when they donot reflect the negative effects of economic activity on the environment or on people.
Method where manufacturers of certain products are required or encouraged to designate on their labels how the products were grown, harvested, or manufactured.
the sell of a permt to another company on order for the company to be able to increase their production rates.