Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

This chapter details the skills successful 21st centrue school leasders must posess to:

*gather, anlyze, and use data to inform decision making;

*Delegater decision-making responsibility;

*Ensure adherence to legal concepts, regulation, and codes for school operations;

use technology to enhance administration;

*engage in finacnial planning and cash flow management;

*establish procedures for budget planning, accounting, and auditing;

*administer auxiliary programs;

*establish procedures for budget planning, accounting, and auditing;

*administer auziliary programs;

*develop a plan for maintaining the school plant equipment and support systems.

*apply appropriate componnes of quality management
*implement a systems approach to monitoring all components (subsystems) of the school system for efficiency.

Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Gathering, Analyzing, and Using Data to Inform Decision Making



1. Perception – SDL must acknowledge that a problem exists.


2. Definition – The definition of a problem involves, cultural, political, and economic factors.


3. Data Gathering – Perception and definition must know what information is relevant to a given decision.


Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Choices: SDL must make choices about which solutions to try and how to proceed.

Consequences: Calculating the consequences of a decision requires an understanding of what outcomes are being sought. Such calculations require clarity of goals and expectations because “without clearly defined purposes, no basis exists for taking any action” (Watson 1981, P7)

Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

The Decision Structure

Defining processes for informed decision making requires knowing the way individuals process information and the communication structure of the system itself (Alexis and Wilson 1967). 

In schools, superintedents and principals often function as line officers, relying uon assistant superintendents, assistant principals, coordinators, and supervisors for information.

Those closest to the situation should make it.

Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Delegating Decision Making Responsibility

Enabling staff in schools and school sstmes to engag in decision making is one of the hallmarks of site based managemtn (SBM) (Babbage 1997).


Some now say management is about managing the processes, not decisions.



Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Ensuring Adherence to Legal Concepts, Regulations and Codes for School Operations.

School law has been a growth industry for more than two decades (Sergiovanni et al 1980, p308)
Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Law Based Reform

Reformers have begun seeking to bring about changes in schools through the legislative and judicial processes.  Wise (1979), however, has presented a highly critical viwe of school reform via legistlation.  Wise coined the term hypernationalization to point out that educational reform mandated by government leads to increased cetralization and bureaucratizatin.  enactment of such laws assumes that teachers and students are infinitely pliable and that a “science of education” exists.  According to Wise (1979, p59) neither of these assumptions is correct; “in the drive to make educational institutions accountable, goals have become narrow, selective and iminal”
Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Law Based Reform Continued

law based reform has avoided encroaching on the interests of teachers unions or school board power.


reform attempts have not dealt with the issues of teacher quality or professional malpractice.


While law-based reforms often use the phrase “all childrn can learn,” the actual socio-economic conditions of some children have worsened, making it unlikely that ny single school reform can, can overcome the stark landscape (DeMitchell and Fossey 1997, pp 186-7)

Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Using Technology to Enhance Administration

when choosing the proper data base it is necessary to understand that there should be an allowance for the construction of alternative scenarios.
Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Cash Flow Mangement.

from time to time districts have more cash on hand than they need to expend.  the excess  cash is available for short term investments.


some school districts practice cash investment pooling by working with their banks to roll monies from various acccounts into one for purposes of investing.

Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

cash flow mangement and subsequent investment strategies must be guided by state law and regulation and a fefinitive local board policy that should stipulate the following:

1. the objectives of the investment program.

2. the designated administrator accountable for the program.

3. the authority and responsibility of the designated administrator.

4. the procedures to be used to project cash flow and the sources and levle of cash to  be used for investment.

5. the designation of minimum and maximum maturities6. the investment instruments to be employed (Hack et al 1995)

Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Establishing Procedures for Budgeting, Accounting, and Auditing

A budget has been defined as “a set of data that record proposed or adopted allocation decisions in terms of goals to be accomplishe (program plan), resources available (revenue plan), and anticpated services and materials to be acquired (expenditure plan) during a specified period of time (fiscal period)” (Sedenburg 1984, p60) Budgeting involves four elements: 1. Planning 2. Receiving funds 3. Spending Funds 4. Evaluating Results.
Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Types of budgets

1.Traditional Budgets- expenditures are generic in theme (music, math) but not summarized.

2. Performance budgets are developed based on the assumptions that assessment data and other forms of feedback should shape budgetary priorities.

3. Program based budgets – A cycle of budget development based on establishing objectives, determing the costs of reaching the objectives, evaluting the results of efforts to reach the objectives, improving or upgrading the objectives, and improving the planning processes to reach revised objectives (Burrup et al . 1993).  Program-based budgets are clear and proide a key tool for school finance.

4. Zero based budget- every program expenditure level within a program must re-establish itself every year.

Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Site Based Budgeting

With the advent of SBM (Site Based Management) has come the call for SBB (Site Based Budgeting)


Phase 1: Engging in Budget Planning

Phase 2: Calculating Expenditures

Phase 3: Determing Accounting and Budgetary Controls

Phase 4 Undertaking Financial Review Audits

Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Developing a plan to maintain the shcool plant, equipment and support systems


1. Is the plant safe and can it provide an optial learning place for students?

2. Is the full range of student activities possible at the plant?

3. Is the plant energy efficient?

4. Are the heating and ventilating systems adequate

5.Is the plant free of noise and void of occupational safety and helath administration violation?


Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Applying the Appropriate Components of Quality Management

Quality Management has become widespread in U.S. business and industry.  QM was pioneered by Sheewhart (1931) and later by Juran (1979) and Deming (1986)


Quality management is developing and operating work processes that are capable of consistently designing, producing and delivery quality offering.

Chapter 4 Skills in Organizational Management

Implementing a Systems Approach to Monitoring All components (Subsystems ) of the School System for Efficiency.

The curriculum management audit process examines the capability of a school system to attain agreed upon objectives within the policy and cost parameters under which it must function.