Chapter 6

Three major factors that account for the exponential increase in the human population for the past 200 years
1. Humans developed the ability to expand into new, diverse habitats and different climate zones.
2. The emergence of early and modern agriculture allowed more people to be fed for each unit of land area farmed.
3. The development of sanitation systems, antibiotics, and vaccines helped control infectious disease agents.
Population: 10,000 years ago
5 million
Population: NOW
6.7 million
The world’s population is still growing at a rate of
1.22% a year
Cultural carrying capacity
The limit on population growth that would allow most people in an area or the world to live in reasonable comfort and freedom without impairing the ability of the planet to sustain future generations
Carrying capacity
Maximum population of a particular species that a given habitat can support over a given period of time
Population change
Increase or decrease in the size of a population
Subtract the number of people leaving a population (through death and emigration) from the number entering it (through birth and immigration) during a specified period of time
Crude birth rate
The number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a given year
Crude death rate
The number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population
Fertility rate
The number of children born to a woman during her lifetime
Two types of fetility rates affect a country’s population size and growth rate. List them…
Replacement-fertility rate
Total fertility rate
Replacement-level fertility rate
The average number of children that couples in a population must bear to replace themselves. It is slightly higher than two children per couple.
Total fertility rate
The average number of children born to women in a population during their reproductive years
Ten factors that affect birth and fertility rates
1. The importance of children as part of the labor force
2. Cost of raising and educating children
3. Availability of private and public pension systems
4. Urbanization
5. Educational and employment opportunities available for women
6. Infant mortality rate-the number of children per 1,000 live births who die before one year of age
7. Average age of marriage
8. Availability of legal abortions
9. Availability of reliable birth control methods
10. Religious beliefs, traditions, and cultural norms
Infant mortality rate
The number of children per 1,000 live births who die before one year of age
Life expectancy
The average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live
The movement of people into and out of specific geographic areas
Age structure
The distribution of males and females among age groups in a population
Demographic transition
As countries become industrialized, first their death and then their birth rates decline.