Chapter 9

Our interpretation of the environment.
The information we actually receive from the environment.
• Sensation alone provides in sufficient information for adequate interpretations of ongoing events.
The eye jumps from one focal point to another, taking periodic snapshots of the visual field.
Ambiguous Stimuli
is when something that readily lends itself to more than one possible construction.
What are some qualities of long-term storage?
1. Selective
2. Constructive
3. Occasionally distortive
4. Dependent on a learner’s existing knowledge.
What are some cognitive processes that affect long-term memory storage?
1. Selection
2. Rehearsal
3. Meaningful learning
4. Internal organization
5. Elaboration
6. Visual imagery
when one is repeating something over and over in a short time period, this provides a means of maintaining information in working memory indefinitely.
What purpose does rehearsal have?
• Rehearsal is also a method of storing information in long-term memory.
• Other theorists have argued that rehearsal leads to effective long-term memory storage only if the learner associates the new information with existing knowledge.
Elaborative rehearsal
Rehearsal that in some way helps learners make associations between the new information and things they already know.
Rote learning
Learning information primarily though repetition.
Meaningful learning
Relating new information to knowledge already stored in their long-term memories.
Self-reference effect
People can also store nonverbal material more easily when it has meaning for them.
External organization
Meaningful learning involves connecting new information with previously learned information.
Internal organization
When the various pieces are interconnected in some way.
When is material easiest to learn?
Material presented in an unorganized manner is easier to learn than unorganized material.
What do people often do when they receive new information?
When people receive information, they often impose their own interpretations on it and learn those interpretations right along with the information they’ve actually been given.
Elaboration involves using prior knowledge to embellish on new information and storing the embellished version.
o It does lead to distortions and errors sometimes.
Generation effect
Most effective when it helps tie new information together, most of the time learners elaborate on and integrate new information to the point that they construct an entirely new idea, concept, procedure, or line of reasoning.
How does elaboration facilitate long-term memory?
1. Information is less likely to be confused with other, similar information stored in long-term memory.
2. Elaboration provides additional means through which a piece of information can later be retrieved.
3. Elaboration may help in making inferences about what the information was likely to have been if the information itself can’t be accurate recalled.
Visual imagery
mental pictures; people tend to remember information better when it’s presented in BOTH verbal and visual forms.
• Imagery provides the foundation for a number of memory strategies called mnemonics.
• Internal organization, elaboration, and visual imagery are constructive in nature.
How is procedural knowledge acquired, according to some theorists?
Declarative knowledge is acquired first and with practice gradually evolves into procedural knowledge.
• Other theorists have proposed that people simultaneously learn both information and behaviors in the process of acquiring a new procedure.
• To the extent that procedural knowledge has mental as well as physical components is acquired and retrieved most effectively when it is stored in conjunction with relevant declarative knowledge.
What is necessary for people to build on new knowledge?
For learners to make a connection between a new piece of information and a piece of information they already have, they must be AWARE of the relationship between the two.
How does prior knowledge affect incoming information?
Our prior knowledge about the world often affects our ability to encode even the most basic kinds of information.
Prior misconceptions
Inaccurate knowledge > misconceptions; students may distort the information to be consistent with their knowledge and as a result learn something quite different from what they actually saw, heard, or read.
How do expectations effect the learning process?
We often form expectations about the things we’ll see and hear – expectations based on our existing knowledge and beliefs about how the world typically operates – and these can influence how we encode and store new information in long-term memory.
Halo effect
They expect desirable behaviors from a person they like or admire and thus are likely to perceive that person’s behaviors in a positive light
Horns effect
They expect inappropriate behaviors from a person they dislike, and their perceptions of that person’s behaviors are biased accordingly.
talking or writing about an experience that either has previously happened or is currently happening.
• Verbalization can also take the form of self-explanation.
is a means of engaging in an overt psychomotor behavior that in some way reflects what’s being learned.
What is the purpose of feedback?
1. Positive reinforcement
2. It affects learners’ self-efficacy
3. A source of information that can help learners improve their performance.
Repetition and reviewing
Reviewing and practicing information and procedures at periodic intervals over the course of a few weeks, months, or years clearly enhances retention and performance.
the Spacing Effect
Learning and practice sessions are typically more effective when they’re spaced out over a period of time (distributed practice).
Controlled processing
requires much of a learner’s attention and is likely to use most or all of the learner’s working memory capacity.
Automatic processing
occurs with little or no conscious attention or effort and requires little working memory capacity.
What are the disadvantages of automaticity?
A more serious disadvantage of automaticity is that it increases the likelihood that an individual will quickly recall certain ideas or perform certain procedures when other, less automatic ideas or procedures are more useful.
Expository instruction
Teacher-centered instruction, > methods in which the instructor directly presents the material to be learned, because these methods often present information in essentially the same form that students are expected to learn it.
Learner-centered instruction
encourages students to construct their own knowledge and understanding, although usually within the context of planned activities.
What is the key difference between teacher-centered and learner-centered instruction?
The key difference isn’t one of focus but rather one of control: Students direct the course of learning to a greater degree in learner-centered approaches than in teacher-centered approaches.
o Teacher-directed instruction > the teacher calls most of the shots.
o Learner-centered instruction > students have considerable say in the issues they address and how to address them.
• What matters most about any instructional method is not whether it’s teacher or learner-directed but HOW WELL IT PROMOTES EFFECT STORAGE PROCESS.
When is instruction most effective?
When it activates and builds on students’ prior knowledge.
• Prior knowledge activation begins with what students already know and continues to remind students of additional things they know that relate to the topic at hand.
• When students have virtually no prior knowledge about a topic, teachers might provide actual experiences on which subsequent instruction can build.
When are students most likely to engage in meaningful learning?
Students are more likely to engage in meaningful learning when they’re explicitly encourage to do so.
• The attitude that they can understand and make sense of it > meaningful learning set.
Advanced organizer
organizer is a general introduction to new material that’s typically designed to accomplish either or both of two purposes:
• An expository organizer provides a rough overview or outline of the material, describing the general topics that will be presented and their relationship to one another.
• A comparative organizer shows how the new material relates to students’ previous experiences.
Concept (knowledge) map
is a diagram of a unit’s concepts or main ideas and interrelationships among them.
How can visual aids be helpful?
Visual imagery can be a highly effective way of encoding information and may be especially valuable when used in conjunction with such other storage processes as meaningful learning or elaboration.
• Visuals seem to reduce the strain on working memory because they provide an external, outside-of-working-memory means of storing some of the information.
What purpose do end-of-lesson summaries have?
1. Review material
2. Determine which of the many ideas they’ve studied are most important
3. Pull key ideas into a more cohesive organizational structure