Chapter 9

The communities of similar organisms found in a particular climate are called these.
convergent evolution
The process by which natural selection favors similar features among otherwise unrelated species is called this.

tropical zone
This straddles the equator and extends to about 25° latitude north and south, corresponding to the Hadley wind cellsin the troposphere (3.7). Tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal forest, and tropical savanna biomes are found in the tropical zone.
temperate zone
This falls between 25° and 60° latitude north and south, which corresponds to the area of prevailing westerly winds in the Ferrel wind cells.

Temperate deciduous forest, temperate evergreen forest, chaparral, and grassland biomes occur here.

polar zone
This extends above 60° latitude north and south; its climate is determined by the polar wind cells. Boreal forest and tundra biomes are located in the polar zone.
continental climates
daily and seasonal temperatures vary widely at locations within the interior of continents, away from large bodies of water. Such areas are said to have this.

maritime climates.
Lands near oceans or large lakes experience much less variation in temperature; such regions have this.
is a graph that shows the pattern of seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation fora particular location
Tropical rain forest
occurs where annual rainfall is greater than 2,000 mm (80 in.) and falls throughout the year (Figure 10.10). The plentiful rainfall and warm climate support an enormous diversity of plants and animals.

Tropical rain forests have a high degree of this, meaning that many species thrive within very restricted geographic ranges.
tropical seasonal forest
The wettest regions of this biome support forests with canopy trees that are 40 m tall (131 ft); the driest regions support only scrubby woodlands.
Tropical savanna
occurs where rainfall is highly seasonal and drought conditions generally persist for more than half of the year
temperate deciduous forest
is dominated by broad-leaved trees that lose their leaves in the autumn and grow a new set in the spring. Temperate deciduous forest occurs in regions with moderate summers and cold winters.
temperate evergreen forest
The dominant trees of the this keep their leaves throughout the year. This biome generally experiences less precipitation and warmer temperatures than the temperate deciduous forest, and summer months are notably drier than winter months
temperate rain forests.

Where heavy winter rains and summer fogs provide ample year-round moisture, evergreen forests are especially lush and diverse, forming this.
n the temperate evergreen forests of the Northern Hemisphere, needle-leaved these—cone-bearing trees such as pine, spruce, and fir—dominate the canopy.
is a biome of evergreen shrublands and low woodlands. It occurs where winters are mild and moist and summers are hot and dry
Most of these shrubs are sclerophyllous, which means “stony leafed.

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” The thick, hard leaves of these shrubs are resistant to water loss and wilting, an adaptation that protects the plants from intense summer drought

temperate grassland
Grasses interspersed with a diverse array of herbs are the dominant vegetation in this biome.
is the variety of life in all its forms and combinations and at all levels of organization.
Landscape diversity
refers to the differences in the variety and abundance of species from place to place.
Species that are found only in specific environments or restricted localities are said to be this.
species richness
he simplest measure of biodiversityis this, the total number of species in each sample. Species richness varies greatly from location to location.

species evenness
Diversity can also be measured by this, the relative abundance of the different species in a community.
structural complexity
Community biodiversity is also affected by this, the three-dimensional distribution of species and biological features. Structural complexity is relatively easy to visualize but difficultto quantify.
genetic diversity
Within populations of individual species, biodiversity is measured by this, the genetic variation among individuals.
Genetic diversity of populations is maximized by this,or mating between individuals that are not closely related.
If the pool of potential mates is small, this, or mating between closely related individuals, is more likely.
sampling effect
As biodiversity increases, there is a higher likelihood that an ecosystem will include a species that has a big effect on a process.

This increased likelihood is known as this.

complementarity effect
Because individual species exploit different parts of the environment, groups of species are able to use resources more efficiently than would any single species.