Chapter by stress-reducing effects. However, lots existing study

Chapter 1INTRODUCTIONA.   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY            In 18th century, music were only listened for familyof kingdom and made by such great composer. In 20th century, music is presentedas a reflexion of the world and made by a talented musician. Nowadays it isknow broadly as one of relaxation method in any situation. But the way it isused as relaxation method is still argued. One of it is in learning process. Musiclistening can give some benefit impacts on our healthby stress-reducing effects.

However, lots existing study shows differences that may be caused by lacks ofmethodologies. This number were alsoaffecting reliable research of multitasking learning using music.There are lots of research journals and articlesdiscussing about MTL with computers or laptops or any devices, but lacks ofsuch as music. This lacks of reliable research encourage researcher to do thisresearch. In this research, the researcher want to analyze the way of musicaffecting high school student’s learning process.

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B.   RESEARCH QUESTIONSThe problem which are investigated inthis study are:Is there any effects of using musicin MTL that could affect the way high school student’s learning process?C.   RESEARCH OBJECTIVESThis study aimed to be able for:Analyzingany differences between students that using music in MTL and the other onewhich did not.D.   HYPOTHESISIn this study, the writerformulates the hypothesis of the study as follows:Ho : There is no effect of usingmusic in MTL that could affect the way high school student’s learning processHa : There are some effects ofusing music in MTL that could affect the way high school student’s learningprocessE.    DEFINITION OF KEY TERMSMulti-task Learning : According to Caruana (1997), MultitaskLearning is an approach to inductive transfer that improves generalization byusing the domain information contained in the training signals of related taskas an inductive bias.Music : “Explicationsof the concept of music usually begin with the idea that music is organized sound.

They go on to note that this characterization is too broad, since there aremany examples of organized sound that are not music, such as human speech,and the sounds non-human animals and machines make” (Kania, 2014). Chapter 2REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREAfter formulating the problem of the study, the researcherarrives at one important process of finding some related information.This chapter discusses (1) MultitaskLearning deep definition; (2) Music’s effects on human stress response and (3) therelevant study.

A.    THEORIESAccordingto Bashori (2014), Multi-tasking is an ability to manage 2 or more activitiesin the same time relying on audio (listening) or visual (reading). Although itwas a technological term, it has become the plural term in the social life of advancedsociety. Multitasking can be found in our life at any time. Such examples likedriving a car while listening the radio or reading a book while enjoying a cupof coffee.

However, some author arguedthat listening music while learning is ineffective for the long term effect. Asstated by Yuwanto (2012), improper “Multitasking” behavior giving advantages inshort term for individuals but negatively on long term. Physically present inthe classroom but in the cognitive and affective not involved in lecturing becausethe student does not gain additional knowledge in addition to abort anobligation presence lecture.

In addition this behavior would potentially berepeated and become habit and even the character of students.Based on research thatconducted by Thoma (2013), music does have some effects on human stressresponse. Stated by the authors, music couldaffects human’s stress response whether it is effective in facilitating orineffective to reducing the bio psychological stress response. But the authorsalso stating that this study were might be biased because researchers didn’tknow whether the participants in the music group were relaxed already that thetreatment didn’t fit with the real conditions of participants.B.    RELEVANT PREVIOUS STUDYThere are some research that taking serious of multitasking case onstudent’s process learning, in this case by using laptop.

Based on study heldby Hembrooke (2003), Students who open laptop has lower scores than studentswho closed their laptop. The study were using 2 groups which one is usinglaptop while having a course while the other one were not. The first group mayopen their laptop in class to explore the material by themselves and do anyother activities that unrelated with the course, whether opening social media,e-mail, etc. But none of these students were listening music in the process.

While the other group were focused to giving their attention to the lecturerabout the materials. In the end, both group were given a 20 question quiz onthe lecture content. Half of the questions were multiple choice(recognition) questions, while the other half were short answer (recall)questions. All students finished the test in approximately ten minutes, afterwhich they were debriefed and thanked for their participation.Anotherstudy by Sana (2013) also stating the same result. In Experiment 1,participants were listening to the lecture, taking notes, and completing theonline tasks. This exercise of carrying out multiple tasks at the same time seemed to have impededretrieval of information at the test, likely as a result of poor encodingduring andinefficiency at allocating limited attentional resources.

In Experiment 2, participants were listening to theinformation being presented and taking notes while in the presence ofdistracting activity in their peripheralvision. Confederates’ laptop screens may have distracted participants fromdirecting their full attention to the lecture. Participants were still able to take notes onthe lecture; however, a lack of complete attentional focus may have compromisedthe elaboration and processingof the information being written, thereby lowering successful retrievalattempts during the comprehension test.Chapter 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGYA.    RESEARCH DESIGNThisresearch is using True Experimental (Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design)using 1 independent variable.

The researcher choosing this design in order toanalyze the differences between students which using music and which doesn’t.B.    POPULATION AND SAMPLEThepopulation of this study are 11th grade students of SMAN 10 Melati Samarinda.There are 8 classes each consist of 35 students. The sample of this research are11A and 11B classes which consist of 70 students.C.

    DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUE-       In the first day, both classes weregiven a pretest in 45 minutes to determine their reading skill. Evaluation wereheld after that. In the end of the class, 11A were asked to bring their ownphone, music list and headset/ earphone for the next 3 days. While 11B were askedto take a break for the next 2 days.-       For the next 2 days, in each days11A will be given each a 10 pages short story to read in  45 minutes while listening their prefferedmusics. In the process, students are not allowed to disturb their friends inthe class. After 45 minutes, students were asked to write the summary of thestory that they had read in 15 minutes.

–       In the 4th day, 11A and 11B will begiven a posttest in 45 minutes to determine their final reading skill ability.While 11A doing the posttest with music as the previous 2 days, 11B will notusing the music. Evaluation were held after that.

D.    INSTRUMENTS-       Pretest paper (5 story with 25questions based on stories)-       Handphone with music player andheadset/ earphone-       Short story papers-       Posttest paper (5 story with 25questions based on stories)E.    DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUEThe dataanalaysis technique that used is quantitative descriptive. The researcherchoose this technique because it classifieda data from a treatment based on its group. This technique showed the databefore giving the treatment and after the treatment in order to take theinformation about the condition of the group.