Chapter one

 What is one of the preeminent challenges of environmental science?
 Sustainable livingCHAPTER 1, p. 2
What is environmental science?
The systematic study of our environment.CHAPTER 1, p. 4; Glossary, p. 382 
What are the four criteria for environmental literacy suggested by the National Environmental Education Advancement Project in Wisconsin?
1. Awareness and appreciation of the natural and built environment2. Knowledge of natural systems and ecological concepts3.

Understanding of current environmental issues4. Ability to use analytical and problem-solving skills on environmental issuesCHAPTER 1, p. 4

 According to our textbook, what should be a central theme of human activity?
SustainabilityCHAPTER 1, p. 9
What is science?
A process for producing empirical knowledge by observing natural phenomena.CHAPTER 1, p. 11
What is empiricism?
Careful observation of the world’s fundamental processes and natural laws to gain understanding.

CHAPTER 1, p. 11

What does the peer review process ensure?
Integrity, skepticism, and accuracy through good standards in study design, data collection, and interpretation of results.CHAPTER 1, p. 11
What is inductive reasoning?
Reasoning from many observations to produce a general rule. We observe, for example, that birds appear and disappear as a year goes by. Through many repeated observations in different places, we can infer that the birds move from place to place.

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We can develop a general rule that birds migrate seasonally. CHAPTER 1, p. 12; Glossary, p. 383

According to our textbook, what six steps does the normal sequence for the scientific method include?
1. Identify question2. Form testable hypothesis3.

Collect data to test hypothesis4. Interpret results5. Report for peer review6. Publish findingsCHAPTER 1, p. 12; Glossary, p. 386

Sound experimental design should…
1. have extremely strong controls2. strictly define variables into measurable factors2.

avoid biasCHAPTER 1, p. 15

What is a paradigm shift?
A dramatic change to scientific consensus occurring when new ideas emerge. CHAPTER 1, p. 16
What is bias?
An inclination or preference preventing unprejudiced consideration of information. For example, being swayed by a peer group to vote for a specific political party.CHAPTER 1, pp.


According to our textbook, what are some of the tools we can use to identify false messages?
1. Reproducibility2. Peer review3. Skepticism4. Critical thinking5. Dr.

Sagan’s Baloney DetectorCHAPTER 1, pp. 11 & 17

What did astronomer Dr. Carl Sagan propose to evaluate scientific claims?
Questions for Baloney Detection CHAPTER 1, p. 17