CHAPTER 4HARDWARE PART 4.1.Arduino (UNO)Arduino is an open-source based on a hardware and software. It hasbeen used in thousands of educational and professional projects. It’s a microcontrollerbased on the Atmel ATmega328 which can operate at 5V.
The microcontroller canbe programmed easily by connecting it to a computer via USB cable and using Arduinosoftware (IDE) which is built based on Java.4.2.Servo Motor4.2.1. PWMPulse-width modulation(PWM) is a technique used to control the amplitude of digital signal in orderto control AC/DC motors or even used in communication field.
It controls thepower of the voltage components by cycling the on and off phases of a signalquickly and thus varying the value of duty cycle. As a motor this input will bea constant voltage since the square waves are varying quickly. PWM contributein minimizing the loss in power in the circuit. A square waveform of the PWMduty cycle can be shown in figure 4.
2.Figure 4.2: PWM(duty cycle)For better comprehension of PWMthese diagrammatic portrayals can be utilized. These figures speak to thewaveforms gotten as yield at various voltage requirements. Figure 4.3: Servo motor PWM timing diagram 4.
2.2. Servo Motor (MG 90S) SpecificationsIts position is defined by the width of duty cycle of the PWMpulses arriving from Arduino. Shown in Figure 4.4.This will redirect the mechanical structure towards the target.Figure 4.
4: PWM Period in Servo Motor Table 4.1: Servo motorspecifications Weight 13.4 g Dimensions 22.
5×12×35.5 mm Stall torque 1.8-2.2 kgf.cm Speed 0.1s/60 degree- 0.
08s/60 degree Voltage 4.8 V – 6.0 V Dead band width 5µs Figure4.5: Servo motor(MG90S) 4.
3.CameraA4Tech PK900H webcam has been chosenbecause it has ability to recording at 30 fps for high resolutions and 60 fpsfor low resolution. It is a 1920×1080p full HD camera and the image resolutionis up to 16 megapixel Figure 4.6: A4TECH PK900H webcam