Chapter two

What are six unique properties of water?

1. Expands upon crystallization at freezing temperatures

2. Cohesive molecules allow capillary action and surface tension

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3. Polar molecules allows water to readily dissolve substances

4. Inorganic liquid at normal temperatures

5. High specific heat

6. High heat of vaporization

CHAPTER 2, p. 31

What are polymers?
Chains or rings with carbon backbones.

CHAPTER 2, p. 31

What are organic compounds?

Complex molecules organized around carbon backbones.


CHAPTER 2, p. 31; Glossary, p. 384

What do deep sea ecosystems use for energy instead of photosynthesis?

Volcanic thermal vents (chemosynthesis).

CHAPTER 2, p. 34

Why does the existence of the human species in the universe contradict entropy?

According to the second law of thermodynamics, disorder–or entropy–tends to increase in all natural systems. Because of this loss, everything in the universe tends to fall apart, slow down, and get more disorganized. Humans are organized.

CHAPTER 2, p. 34; Glossary, p. 381

Why is perpetual motion impossible?

The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is conserved; that is, it is neither created nor destroyed under normal conditions. Therefore, the first law demands all machines have a source of energy. Perpetual motion procures energy from nothingness, contradicting the first law of thermodynamics.

CHAPTER 2, p. 34

What is conservation of matter?

In chemical reactions, matter is neither created nor destroyed.

CHAPTER 2, p. 34