CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction (Nadler & Nadler,2012) assert that humanresource development includes training.
The purpose of the training is toenhance the performance of the employees working currently in the organization.Training is often viewed in many terms and also seen as a cure of all theproblems. Mostly all of the employeesgets training in the starting of their careers the individuals rely on thistraining to improve their currents skills and learn new skills (Thang, N.N,2010). Training isvery important in achieving the goal of the organization as it increases theefficiency and effectiveness of employees and adds value in the organizationalperformance. The effect of usefulness of training for theemployees on the relationship between future orientation and contextperformance. It has been a topic of interest in the research world for manyyears. This study analyzes that training is aimed to train employees, enhancetheir current work ability and should coincide with organizational strategicplanning.
Training for the organizations is an important point for future workdemand. It questions how the employee considers this training as useful forthem.1.2 GapThegap is when we study the organizations there is a crucial gap in the HRMpractices, implications for theory and HRM literature. Theoretically our study will fill the gap inthe existing literature and provide some new insights on the constructs whichhas been less studied. Empirically, it will guide the organizations about thetraining programs which will affect the relationship between the futureorientation and the context performance.
1.3 Significance or importanceTraining is crucial fororganizational development and success. It is fruitful to both employers andemployees of an organization. An employee will become more efficient andproductive if he is trained well. Training is given on four basic grounds: New candidates who join an organization are given training. This training familiarize them with the organizational mission, vision, rules and regulations and the working conditions. The existing employees are trained to refresh and enhance their knowledge.
If any updating and amendments take place in technology, training is given to cope up with those changes. For instance, purchasing new equipment, changes in technique of production, computer impartment. The employees are trained about use of new equipment’s and work methods. When promotion and career growth becomes important. Training is given so that employees are prepared to share the responsibilities of the higher level job1.
4 Objectives of the research· Toexamine how training mediates between future orientation and contextperformance.· ToAccessing the impact of these training on task performance.1.
5 Research question:1: Up to what Future orientationwill positively relate to context performance?2: Up to what extent trainingmediate the relationship between future orientation and context performance? CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1Theoretical foundation of the study This study will be guidedby both learning theory, human capital theories ad socio cognitive theory . Foran organization to smartly achieve itsgoals, it has to manage properly the human resources which are available.
humanresource management in many 15 organizations is the focus for a wide rangingdebate concerning the nature of the contemporary employment relationship itsAccording to Armstrong (1996). That’s why managing human resource is one of thekey elements in the coordination and management of work organizations. In theera of technological change over time, new ways of creating and deliveringgoods and services are always discovered.
But whatever means used, humanresource is still required to ensure the interest of both employees andemployers is met. Learning in the workplace is very important as it influencesthe way training and development is approached. Learning is the process ofacquiring knowledge, understanding, skills and values in order to adapt to theenvironment in which we live. (Gayne 1996).
Several theories relating to howpeople learn exist and each theory relates to different aspects of the learningprocess. The reinforcement theory emphasizes that people are motivated toperform or avoid certain behaviors because of past outcomes that have resultedfrom those behaviors. From a training perspective, reinforcement theorysuggests that for learners to acquire knowledge, change behavior, or modifyskills, the trainer needs to identify what outcomes the learner finds mostpositive and negative. Trainers then need to link these outcomes to learnersacquiring knowledge, skills and changing behavior. The social learning theoryemphasizes that people learn by observing other persons (models) whom theybelieve are credible and knowledgeable.
This theory also recognizes thatbehavior which is reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated . Goal theoryassumes that behavior results from a person?s conscious goals and intentions.Goals influence 16 behavior by directing energy and attention, sustainingeffort over time, and motivating the person to develop strategies for goalattainment. Need theory helps explain value that a person places on a certainoutcome. A need is a deficiency that a person is experiencing at any point intime. Need theories suggest that to motivate learning, trainers should identifytrainees? needs and communicate how training program content relates tofulfilling these needs (McGraw-Hill 1996). Another theory guiding this study ontraining and development is the human capital theory.
Schultz, (1961) definedhuman capital theory as the knowledge and skills obtained by people as capitalin the process of vocational and technical education. Human capital theoryshows that individuals and the whole society gain economic benefits frominvestments in people (Sweetland, 1996). The emphasis of human capital theoryis how education adds on efficiency and productivity of workers by increasinglevel of cognitive stock of economically productive human capability which is aproduct of innate abilities and investment in human beings (Olaniyan andOkemakinde, 2008). Investing in human capital, just like investing on physicalcapital is vital in adding to productivity of individuals in terms of labor.This develops the labor force both qualitatively and quantitatively, mainlybecause a qualified labor force increases productivity and brings investmentsto entrepreneurship.
Becker, (1993) recognized that education and training arethe most important components of human capital investment and that the incomeof a better educated and trained person is normally higher than the averagewage rate. Dubra, (2010) further adds that there are three types of training or17 education closely related to return rate and human capital which are:education at school, training at work place and other knowledge. Education atschool gives one knowledge in the institution that concentrates its activity ontraining process and offers education as a product. Training at work placegives new skills and improves gained skills at workplace.
Other knowledgeincludes any other information obtained by the individual to improve their owneconomic situation. Black and Lynch (1996) citing Bishop (1994) did a study inAmerica on the impact of human capital investments such as employer-providedtraining and development, and concluded that training and development raisessubjective productivity and performance by almost 16%. Knowledgeworker future orientationThe concept of KWs wasintroduced by Peter Drucker back in 1959 when he identified the change that wastaking part in the modern organizations where manual work was no longer thenorm; instead the center of gravity of the organization had shifted toknowledge work. Drucker defined a knowledge worker (KW) as the one that “putsto work what he has between his ears rather than brawn of his muscle or theskill of his hands” (Drucker, 2007, p. 3). The KWs are thus those who carry outthe “knowledge work”, one of intellectual nature rather than physical nature(Alvesson, 2000). Opposed to the manual worker (MW), the KW does not produce aphysical product but knowledge, ideas and information. Olomolaiye & Egbu(2004) describe KWs as those who receive information, assimilate it, decide whatto do and execute the relevant decisions.
They are problem solvers that rely ontheir intellect rather than on manual skills (Muo, 2013)2.2Perceived trainer performance Perceptionis the process in which people select, organize and interpret informationgathered by their senses in order to understand the world around them (Flukerand Turner, 2000). So the perceived trainer performance means how the traineesconceptualize the trainer teaching style, his methodology. If the style of thetrainer is well and good then the participant will surely perceive the methodof the trainer in a positive way. The style of the trainer matters a lot whilewe are highly motivated to see ourselves somewhere in the future. 2.
3 perceived usefulness oftraining The participantsperceives the training as providing them with the knowledge and the skill and improve their efficiencywithin the organization and the other concern is they perceive training ascontributing to their career opportunities. (Lee, S.H and Pershing, J.A,2002)the individuals who are highly motivated, who has high attention to besomething in his/her future he/she will perceive the benefits of the trainingin a positive way. He will pay attention to the benefits of the trainingprovided to them. 2.4perceived efficiency of training It relates to the organization andthe mode of the course.
It refers to an evaluation about the physical location.(Podsakoff,P.M,2003).
According to Dessler (2001),employee training and certification are used to teach newcomers or veteransskills needed to perform their job. In fact, it refers to the process by whichcurrent performance of employees is enhanced in accordance with the company’sgoals. This includes programs taking place within the organization (internaltraining, courses), professional programs, certifications, etc.In order toselect the most appropriate program the process of training should include fivekey activities: determine the need, set the goals, design, implement andevaluate.With this method, the impact of employee training is measured on the basis of fourcriteria: Reaction criteria – related to the question of how employees liked the training and how much they believe they have learned during its realization. Based on this criteria, the evaluation is carried out so that at the end of the training participants fill out a questionnaire. Learning criteria – refers to what the students have learned during the training and what kind of knowledge and skill set they are able to demonstrate after it.
Behavior criteria – related to changes in the behavior of employees shown after completing the training. Result criteria – related to the question of whether the training achieved the desired results, and whether the results of the training will lead to an increased productivity and improved performance of employee.2.
5Context performancePerformance is the accomplishment of particular taskmeasured against predetermined or identified standards of accuracy,completeness, cost and speed. Cooke (2000). In an employment contract,performance is deemed to be the achievement of an assignment laid down underthe contract.
Efficiency and effectiveness are components of performance asmeasured by the standards set by the organization. Employee performance isrelated with quantity of output, timeliness of output, quality of output,attendance on the job, efficiency of the work finished and effectiveness ofwork completed. Mathis & Jackson (2009). Performance is the achievement ofa given duty measured against predetermined principles of accuracy,completeness, cost and speed. 8 The performance of any organization isdependent on the quality of its workforce. There are some expectations from theemployees regarding their performance.
When they perform up to the setstandards and meet organizational expectations they are assumed to be goodperformers. The general view is that employee?s performance is influenced bysuch factors as salary, training and development both on the job and off thejob; working conditions among others (Obisi 2011). Recruiting and selection ofemployees with high potential is not a guarantee that they will perform witheffectiveness.
If they do not have the knowledge of what to do or how to do itthen can never perform effectively even if they wanted to. Therefore,organizations need to train and develop employees so as to equip them with theknow how of what and how to do things for effective performance. Goodperformance is vital for the going- concern of any organization. Poorperformance may lead to capital losses and eventually the collapse of anorganization. Employee performance is higher when workers are happy and content.The performance of employees is generally rated in terms of output.
Accordingto Kennedy et al. (1992), employee performance is measured against performancestandards that are set by the organization. When measuring performance, anumber of factors are taken into account, for example productivity, efficiency,effectiveness, quality and profitability.
Profitability is the earning ofprofits consistently within a given period of time. Stoner, (1996) describesefficiency as the ability to produce expected results using minimum resourcesas possible while effectiveness refers to ability of employees to meet desiredobjectives. Productivity is the ratio of output produced to that of input used.It is also a measure of how much output is produced per unit of employedresources (Lipsey, 1989).
Quality, 9 according to Stoner, (1996) isincreasingly achieving better products and services at a progressively morecompetitive price.2.6Relationship between Training, future orientation and context performanceTraining,according to Serkan and Emir (2014), should be planned in such a way that itresults in the commitment of the organization. Mthokozisi and Clifford (2015)on the hand proposed that commitment of employees is as a result of some humanresource practices such as career development and training opportunities aswell as promotions and succession planning. When these practices are wellcatered for, they bring higher employees performance. Although the aboveliterature gives enough evidence to buttress the positive effects of trainingand development on employee performance, Uma and Murali (2016) outlined thatmanagement of organizations most often than not hesitates when investing in itshuman resource due to diverse reasons.
Sometimes, after effective and timelytraining programs are given employees, they intend to cash it for the sake oftheir own employment opportunity and market value or they are ready to changejobs simply because of increase in salaries, which makes a firm’s investment intraining a cost rather than been profitable. Training IV DV Theoretical modelHypothesisH1:knowledge worker future orientation will be positively relate to contextperformanceH2: Perceivedtrainer performance will mediate the positive relationship knowledge workerfuture orientation and context performanceH3: Perceivedusefulness of training will mediate the positive relationship knowledge workerfuture orientation and context performanceH4: Perceivedefficiency of training will mediate the positive relationship knowledge workerfuture orientation and context performance CHAPTER: 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES3.1 IntroductionThischapter provides a description of procedures to be use in carrying out thestudy. It describes the research design, target population, sample size andsampling procedures, data collection instruments and procedures, reliabilityand validity of instruments that were going to be used as well as the otherdata processing and presentation methods/data analysis techniques.3.
2 Research strategyTheresearch is quantitative. The survey strategy will be used to generalize thefindings (Floyd, 2002, p.178). the survey strategy is chosen, as the study’s aimis to generalize the findings on the three research objectives: (1) to test ifknowledge worker orientation has a positive effect on task performance 2) totest if these three factors mediate the relationship between knowledge workerand task performance (3) to explore knowledge worker role its relationship withthe population.
3.3 Research approach Allresearch projects involve the use of a theory. According to Saunders et al. (2011),there are two types of research approaches, deductive and inductive. Thisresearch proposal is deductive approach.
A deductive research method requiresthe development of a conceptual and theoretical structure before being testedthrough empirical examination (John and Phil,2002). 3.4 Research DesignThisstudy will be conducted using descriptive survey design. According to Orodho(2005), descriptive survey can be used to describe some aspects of populationlike opinions, attitudes and beliefs.
Best and Kahn (2005), state that surveysgather data at a particular point in time with the intention of describing the natureof existing conditions. The purpose of this survey is to gather detailedinformation in order to provide an insight on the relationship between trainingand knowledge worker future orientation and knowledge worker task performancein pharmaceutical industry.3.5 Target Population According to (Kothari, 2004), targetpopulation was the larger group to which one is hoping to apply findings.
Thestudy will target 210 pharmacists working in for the participation in theresearch study.3.6 Unit of analysis Theunit of analysis will be individuals like doctors, nurses, hospitaladministration staff etc3.7 Sample Size Simple random sampling technique will be used.According to Borg and Gall (1989), a sample size of any study should be basedon what a researcher considers being statistical and practicable.
For thisstudy, a sample of 210 employees will be selected. Random sampling will be usedin selecting the number of branches that will be involved in the study. Thiswill allow all members of the population to have an equal chance of beingselected.3.8 Sample frame Strata Target Population Hospitalpharmacies 144Communitypharmacies 40Clinics 15Biotech drug dealers 11Total 2103.9 Measures Forthe measurement the questionnaire will be adopted. Whose scales are available.The survey items were provided using 5 point likert scale.
3.10 Data Collection Aclosed questionnaire will be used in data collection for the study.Questionnaires are ideal for survey study as postulated by (Mugenda andMugenda, 1999) and they are widely used to obtain information about theknowledge worker future orientation and knowledge worker task performance. Theresearch questionnaires will be developed to fit the research design and theplan of data analysis so that the data to be collected will facilitateestablishing the perceived relationship of training and employee performance.
The questionnaire will consist of two sections. Section A will have generaldemographic information about the respondents like age, sex, grade etc. whilesection B will cover on perception of employees of training and theirperformance.3.11 Statistical toolsThereliability, validity, inter-correlation and hierarchical regression analysiswill be computed using SPSS. 3.12questionnaire design “The surveyquestionnaire is the conduit through which information flows from the world ofeveryday behaviour and opinion into the world of research and analysis” (Czajaand Blair, 2005, p.
300) All of the questions from the first two pages of thequestionnaire have been designed using a likert scale. Thepurpose of the statements in a Likert question is to represent differentaspects of the same attitude (Brace, 2005). Five points within the scalehave been chosen, as they give enough discrimination for most purposesand respondents can easily understand those (Brace, 2005). Moreover, thechoice of an even number of points will not force a response to go in one directionor another. Further researchWepropose that future research should focus on the integrity of the medicalindustry functions scale and also the scale of the training.
The study shouldfocus on the full four level of training. References :1:The Factors Determine Knowledge Workers Productivity within the Irish IndustryRaul Fernandez Gomez August 20132:Author Aidah Nassazi TitleEffects of training on Employee performance.Evidence from Uganda Year 20133:Impact of Training and Development on Organizational Performance By Raja AbdulGhafoor Khan, Furqan Ahmed Khan,Dr. Muhammad Aslam Khan4: International Journal of Science andResearch (IJSR)TheInfluence of Training and Development on the Performance of Employees inResearch Institutes in Kenya 20135: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON TRAINING & DEVELOPMENTAND QUALITY OF WORK LIFE Ms.
Pallavi P. Kulkarni, 20136: International Journal of Academic Researchin Business and Social Sciences International Journal of Academic Research inBusiness and Social Sciences TheImpact of Training and Development on Employees Performance andProductivity of United Bank Limited Peshawar City, KPK, Pakistan 2014 7:THE IMPACT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTON EMPLOYEES’ PERFORMANCE 1,*Stephen Tetteh, 2Wu Ci Sheng, 3Liu Duan Yong,4Opata Christian Narhand 5Opata Emmanuel Sackitey 8: European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839(Online) Vol.5, No.2, 20139: THE IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMESIN HOTEL INDUSTRY 201410:NORGES HANDELSHØYSKOLE Bergen, Spring 2014 Are knowledge workers moreintrinsically motivated than manual workers?