what produces a variety of weather
combination of earth’s motions and energy from the sun
what is the climate based on
climate is based on observations of weather that have been collected over many years. climate helps describe a place of region
what is air a mixture of
air is a mixture of different gases particles each with its own physical properties. the combination of air varies from time to time and from place to place
what two gases make up 99 percent of dry air
Nitrogen and oxygen make up 99 percent of the volume of clean, dry air
what gas plays a significant role in heating the atmosphere
carbon dioxide is an active absorber of energy given off by earth. therefore, it plays a significant role in heating the atmosphere
what is the source of all clouds and precipitation
water vapor is the source of all clouds and precipitation. like carbon dioxide, water vapor absorbs heat given off earth
what are some particles that remain suspended for long periods of time
sea salts from breaking waves, fine soil blown into air, smoke and soot from fires, pollen & microorganisms lifted by the winds,& ash & dust from volcanic eruptions
when do oxygen atoms split into single atoms of oxygen
they split when they absorb ultraviolet radiation emitted from the sun
what does ozone absorb
ozone absorb harmful uv radiation from the sun. our planet would uninhabitable for many living organism if ozone wasn’t there
what accounts for nearly half the primary pollutants by weight
emission from transportation vehicles
what are the secondary pollutants
they are not emitted directly into the air. they form in the atmosphere when reactions take place among primary pollutants and other substances
what are photo-chemical reactions
reactions triggered by strong sunlight
what is atmospheric pressure
atmosphere pressure is simply the weight of the air above
how many layers is the atmosphere divided into
in what layer do most weather phenomena occur
where does most energy that drives weather and climate come from
what creates winds and dives the ocean’s currents
it is the unequal heating of Earth that creates winds and drives the ocean current. these movements transport heat from the topics toward the poles in an attempt to balance energy differences. the results of these processes are the phenomena we call weather
what is rotation
rotation spinning of earth about its axis. the axis is an imaginary line running through the north and south poles . our planet rotates once every 24
what is revolution
Revolution is the movement of earth in its orbit around the sun. earth travels at nearly 113000 kilometers per hour in an elliptical orbit about the sun
what are the degrees the earth is tilted
23.5 degrees
what is the length of daylight determined by
it is determined by earth’s position in orbit
what are the three mechanisms for energy transfer
conduction, convection & radiation
what can radiant energy travel through
Radiant energy can travel through the vacuum of space
do hot or cold radiate more energy
hotter objects radiate more total energy per unit area than colder objects do
what is reflection
reflection occurs when light bounces off an object. about 30% the solar energy reaching the outer atmosphere is reflected back to space
does land or water heat higher temperature faster
land heats more rapidly and higher temperature than water. land also cools more rapidly and lower temperatures than water. temperature variation ; therefore, are considered greater over land than over water
what is a coast in which winds blow from the ocean onto the shore
windward coast
what is albedo
albedo is the fraction of the total radiation that is reflected by any surface. many clouds have a high albedo and therefore reflect a significant portion of the sunlight that strike them back to space
what does the extent of cloud cover influence
by reducing the amount
what type of lines connects points of the same temperature