CHDV 131 – Language Development

Stress
In terms of speech, the prominence placed on certain syllables of multisyllabic words. For example, the first syllable of the word OVER is stressed, whereas the second syllable of the word ABOVE is stressed.
Categorical Scope
A principle that builds on the principle of extendibility by limiting the basis for extension to words that are taxonomically similar. For example, children who honor taxonomic constraints would categorize a dog and cat similarly instead of categorizing a dog with dog food using similar properties.
Extendibility
The notion that words label categories of objects, not using the original exemplar. Therefore, the word ball can be used to describe multiple objects that fall under the basic-level category ball.
Object Scope
A principle stating that words map to while objects. Children using the principle of object score assume that novel words label objects rather than actions. When children hear a novel label, they prefer to attach the label to an object instead of an action.
Narrative
A child’s spoken or written description of a real or fictional event from the past, the present, or the future.
Slow mapping
Gradually refining representations of a word with time and multiple exposures to the word in varying contexts. Occurs after fast mapping.
Reliability
An attribute of any system that consistently produces the same results, preferably meeting or exceeding its specifications.
Emergent Literacy
The earliest period of learning about reading and writing. Children in this stage of literacy are not yet reading and writing in a conventional sense, but their emerging knowledge about print and sounds from an important foundation for the reading instruction that begins in formal schooling.
Babbling
A young child’s production of syllables that contain pairs of consonants and vowels (C-V sequences when the consonant precedes the vowel). Usually begins between ages 6 and 10 months.
Habituation
Describes a task involving presenting an infant with the same stimulus repeatedly until his or her attention to the stimulus decreases by a predetermined amount.
Imperative Pointing
Pointing by an infant to request an adult to retrieve an object for him or her. Occurs around age 10 months.
Reduplicated Babbling
Babbling that consists of repeating consonant-vowel pairs, such as “da da da.”
Intonation
The prominence placed on various parts of sentences. Contrast stress
Assimilation
The process by which children change one sound in a syllable so that it takes on the features of another sound in the same syllable. A context-dependent change. Includes velar assimilation.
Conventionality
A principle stating that for children to communicate successfully, they must adopt the terms people in their language community understands.
Novel-Name-Nameless Category
A principle stating that a nameless object included in a group of known objects should be the recipient of a novel label. Supporting the principle of object scope, the principle of N3C is based on the principle of mutual exclusivity but does not presuppose that children avoid attaching more than one label to an object.
Referential Gestures
Gestures such as holding a fist to an ear to indicate telephone or waving a hand to indicate bye-bye. Used by children beginning to transition from the pre-linguistic stage to the one-word stage.
Alphabetic principle
The relationship between letters or combinations of letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes)
Deictic
Words whose use and interpretation depend on the location of a speaker and listener within a particular setting. To use such terms correctly, children must be able to adopt their conversational partners’ perspective. Examples: the terms here and this, used to indicate proximity to the speaker, and the terms there and that, used to indicate proximity to the listener.
Metalinguistic Ability
The ability to view language as an object of attention) e.g., preschoolers exhibit metalinguistic ability when they pretend to write or make up rhyming patterns). See also alphabet knowledge; phonological awareness; print awareness.
Print awareness
Understanding of the forms and functions of written language. A type of metalinguistic ability important to emergent literacy
Relational terms
Additional achievements in content for preschoolers. Once the grasp the concepts underlying the terms they can understand and use relational terms. Includes interrogatives, temporal terms, opposites, locational prepositions, and kinship terms
Validity
The extent to which the data resulting from evaluation and assessment tools can be extend to multiple contexts, including a child’s home and day care settings.
Infant Foundations of Language
1. Infant-directed speech
2. Joint reference and attention
3. Rituals of infancy
4. Caregiver responsiveness
Paralinguistic characteristics (Infant directed speech)
Higher overall pitch, exaggerated pitch contours, slower tempos
Syntactic characteristics (Infant-directed speech)
1. Shorter and simpler utterances
2. Focus on content words (nouns, verbs)
Rituals of infancy
1. Feeding, bath time, bed time
2. Provide a sense of comfort and predictability
3. Opportunities for language learning
4. Opportunities to engage in episodes of joint attention with caregivers
5. By hearing words and phrases repeatedly, infants learn the sounds and structure of their language
3 phases of joint reference and attention (Infant foundations)
1. Emergence to social partners
2. Emergence and coordination of joint attention
3. Transition to language
Important factors (Infant foundations)
1. Environment
2. Linguistic input adults provide
3. Social interactions with others
Infant Major language development milestones
1. Speech Perception
2. Awareness of actions and intentions
3. Semantic category formations
4. Early vocalizations
(Infant) Specific achievements in CONTENT
1. Concept of object develops
2. Later, object permanence emerges
3. Develop object categories
4. Use gestures instead of words
5. By twelve months
• First true word production
• Understands 5-10 words
(Infant) Specific achievements in FORM
1. Initial words used in isolation for several months before combined to make short phrases
• No syntactic or morphological development yet
2. Phonology:
• Speech/language perception (see earlier slides)
• Production – vowel sounds, babbling, some CV combinations
3 criteria for a true word
1. Clear intention and purpose
2. Recognizable pronunciation
3. Used consistently and generalized beyond original context
Specific achievements in USE (INFANT)
1. Communicate intentionally by 8 mos. using a variety of pre-verbal language functions: a. Attention seeking to self – tug on jacket b. Attention seeking to objects, etc. – pointing c. Requesting objects – imperative pointing d. Requesting or providing information – also pointing e. Greeting – wave • Transferring – give someone a toy f. Protesting/rejecting – cry, push away g. Responding/acknowledging – smile, laugh
Factors that influence language development (INFANT)
1. Intra-individual (within the same child)
2. Inter-individual (across different children)
How researchers measure language development (INFANT)
1. Habituation-Dishabituation Tasks
2. Intermodal Preferential Looking
3. Interactive Intermodal Preferential Looking
4. Naturalistic Observation
How clinicians measure language development
1. Informal Language Screenings
2. Parent Report Measures
Stages of babbling
1.Reflexive (0-8 weeks)
2.Control of phonation (6-16 weeks)
3. Expansion (4-6 months)
4. Control of articulation (5-8 months)
5. Canonical syllables (6-10 months)
6. Advanced forms (10-18 months)
Caregiver responsiveness (Infant foundation)
1. Caregivers’ attention and sensitivity to infants’ vocalizations and communicative attempts
2. Teaches infants that others value their behaviors and communicative attempts
3. Promotes child’s ability and desire to sustain periods of joint attention
4. Increases their motivation to communicate.
5. Both quality and quantity important
6. Linked to children’s language milestones
7. Indicators of caregiver responsiveness:
o Waiting and listening
o Following the child’s lead
TODDLER – Major language development milestones
TODDLER
1. Major language development milestones
2. Gestures
At about what age does a child use their first word
1 year
3 criteria for true word
1. Clear intention and purpose
2. Recognizable pronunciation
3. Used consistently and beyond original context
Specific achievements in CONTENT (TODDLER)
1. Receptive and expressive lexicons
2. Learn new words: The Quinean Conundrum
3. Learning New Words: Lexical Principles Framework
4. Learning Words: Social/Pragmatic Framework and Fast Mapping
5. Thematic Roles Toddlers Acquire
Specific achievements in FORM (TODDLER)
1. Phonology
2. Grammatical and Inflectional Morphemes
Specific achievements in USE (TODDLER)
1. Discourse Functions
2. Conversational Skills
Factors that influence language development (TODDLER)
1. Intraindividual Differences
2. Interindividual Differences
Interindividual Differences (Toddler)
1. Gender
2. Birth Order
3. SES
How researchers and measure language development (TODDLER)
1. Production tasks
2. Comprehension tasks
3. Judgment tasks
How clinicians measure language development (TODDLER)
1. Evaluation
2. Assessment
First tier principles of the lexical principles framework (TODDLER)
1. Principle of Reference – words symbolize objects, actions, events, and concepts (Ex: dog, run)
2. Principle of Extendibility – words can label categories of objects, and not just the original exemplar (Ex: ball = all objects of similar round shape)
3. Principle of Object scope – words map to whole objects (ex: bird = entire bird, not just a part)
Second tier principles of the lexical principles framework (TODDLER)
1. Principle of Conventionality – move from baby talk to using conventional words
o Ex: blanket instead of blankie
2. Principle of Novel name-nameless category (N3C) – Mutual exclusivity – objects have only one label
o Ex: selects thermometer out of box of objects
3. Principle of Categorical scope – connect words that are taxonomically similar
o Ex: dog connected with cat rather than with dog food
Phonological production processes used by toddlers
1. Syllable structure – delete or repeat syllables
2. Assimilation – change one sound to another
3. Place of articulation – replace a sound produced at one location with one produced at a different location
4. Manner of articulation – replace sound produced one way with one produced in a different way