CHDV154 – Parenting Issues Exam 2- CHAPTER 6

Model of Parenting Development through adolescence (Galinsky)
-Image making: transition to parenting- focus on what we are going to be like as parents
-Nurturing: parents of infants & toddlers- meeting babies needs
-Authority: parents of preschoolers- parents create structure & rules for children
– Interpretive: parents of school aged children- share info & values w/children, help child negotiate role outside home/family (communication skills)
– Interdependent: parents of adolescents- balancing intimacy & autonomy, renegotiate autonomy/ independence — requires negotiation
unintended vs. unwanted parenting
– many married & unmarried= unintended children
– better to plan b/c: financial, health (lack prenatal care)
– unintended= usually good parents
– unwanted= poor parenting skills, children show adjustment issues
characteristics of married and unmarried parents
– Past= primarily married, now= diverse
– Married: higher rates of intended births, decrease in marital satisfaction after baby
– Unmarried: cohabitating, gay/lesbian, teen parents, single parents
– 34% of births to unmarried parents. why? women have more financial resources, stigma to being an unmarried parent has declined
-cohabitating couples likely to marry w/in 5 years of birth
changes associated with becoming a parent
-lack of sleep, financial stress, diet, bad habits, relationship w/ family (husband, other children), friends, self-image, scheduling, location, school, social life
* Typically affect brain system
– Teratogens: environmental factors that are toxic during prenatal development
– brain is vulnerable, greatest damage happens in beginning embryo, harm depends on: TIMING, LENGTH OF EXPOSURE, DIVERSITY (some infants more susceptible than others)
-Smoking= low birth weight
– Alcohol= fetal alcohol syndrome/effects- attention & cognitive problems in children
-Thalidomide= prescription to relieve nausea during pregnancy, resulted in stunted limbs (10,000 babies)
– DES= fertility drug linked to cancer & infertility in child
– Aspirin= linked to low birth weight
– caffeine= premature labor
– smoking= low birth weight
– Heroin, cocaine, marijuana
– mercury , lead= brain problems
genetic defects, sex-linked defects
* Normal development is normal in most cases!
– chromosomes made of DNA
– sex linked abnormalities= color blind, hemophelia= more likely in males
-sickle cell anemia- affects blood, more common in African descent
– down syndrome: mental retardation- related to parental age
-sex linked disorders: PKU- dont have ability to process an enzyme (controlled by diet), Tay-sachs- recessive disorder, Hunnington’s chorea- central nervous system in adulthood (reproduce before)
stages of childbirth
1. Labor= contractions (long), dialations
2. Delivery= (shorter), most babies are head first
3. Delivery of placenta
– has gone up. Why? complications have gone up, liability- if any indication, Dr.’s do C-section
prematurity and low birth weight
– Preterm= birth earlier than 37 weeks. Problems= respiratory (lungs not fully developed)
-Low birth weight= weigh under 5.5lbs at birth. WHY? maternal nutrition, smoking. Problems= weight= protection
APGAR assessment of newborn
– APGAR= rating system- heart rate, respiratory, color
– Done at 1 min after birth and 5 min after
-Rating scale 0-5 (anything under 4= issue)
Factors affecting the transition to parenting (and child development)
1. Age of parent: very young parents= put themselves and children at risk for poor dev. outcome
2. Income/resources: poverty/ lack of resources= problematic, or adequate income
3. Marital status/ relationship quality- having a positive relationship w/ significant other (married or not) eases transition
4. Gender of parent: Mothers= physical changes, lack of sleep, birth & care immediately, Fathers may feel left out
5. Communication skills/ attitude: Ability to balance the needs of others, engage in mutual problem-solving, be flexible, positive attitude, negotiate conflict (ALL EASE TRANSITION)
6. Division of workload/ support:
– Support from spouse, extended family, friends
-dividing up workload w/ significant other