CHDV154 – Parenting Issues Exam 2- CHAPTER 6

Model of Parenting Development through adolescence (Galinsky)
-Image making: transition to parenting- focus on what we are going to be like as parents-Nurturing: parents of infants & toddlers- meeting babies needs-Authority: parents of preschoolers- parents create structure & rules for children – Interpretive: parents of school aged children- share info & values w/children, help child negotiate role outside home/family (communication skills)- Interdependent: parents of adolescents- balancing intimacy & autonomy, renegotiate autonomy/ independence — requires negotiation
unintended vs. unwanted parenting
– many married & unmarried= unintended children- better to plan b/c: financial, health (lack prenatal care)- unintended= usually good parents- unwanted= poor parenting skills, children show adjustment issues
characteristics of married and unmarried parents
– Past= primarily married, now= diverse- Married: higher rates of intended births, decrease in marital satisfaction after baby- Unmarried: cohabitating, gay/lesbian, teen parents, single parents- 34% of births to unmarried parents. why? women have more financial resources, stigma to being an unmarried parent has declined-cohabitating couples likely to marry w/in 5 years of birth
changes associated with becoming a parent
-lack of sleep, financial stress, diet, bad habits, relationship w/ family (husband, other children), friends, self-image, scheduling, location, school, social life
teratogens
* Typically affect brain system- Teratogens: environmental factors that are toxic during prenatal development- brain is vulnerable, greatest damage happens in beginning embryo, harm depends on: TIMING, LENGTH OF EXPOSURE, DIVERSITY (some infants more susceptible than others)-Smoking= low birth weight- Alcohol= fetal alcohol syndrome/effects- attention & cognitive problems in children-Thalidomide= prescription to relieve nausea during pregnancy, resulted in stunted limbs (10,000 babies)- DES= fertility drug linked to cancer & infertility in child- Aspirin= linked to low birth weight- caffeine= premature labor- smoking= low birth weight- Heroin, cocaine, marijuana- mercury , lead= brain problems
genetic defects, sex-linked defects
* Normal development is normal in most cases!- chromosomes made of DNA- sex linked abnormalities= color blind, hemophelia= more likely in males-sickle cell anemia- affects blood, more common in African descent- down syndrome: mental retardation- related to parental age-sex linked disorders: PKU- dont have ability to process an enzyme (controlled by diet), Tay-sachs- recessive disorder, Hunnington’s chorea- central nervous system in adulthood (reproduce before)
stages of childbirth
1.

Labor= contractions (long), dialations2. Delivery= (shorter), most babies are head first3. Delivery of placenta

C-sections
– has gone up. Why? complications have gone up, liability- if any indication, Dr.’s do C-section
prematurity and low birth weight
– Preterm= birth earlier than 37 weeks. Problems= respiratory (lungs not fully developed)-Low birth weight= weigh under 5.

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5lbs at birth. WHY? maternal nutrition, smoking. Problems= weight= protection

APGAR assessment of newborn
– APGAR= rating system- heart rate, respiratory, color- Done at 1 min after birth and 5 min after-Rating scale 0-5 (anything under 4= issue)
Factors affecting the transition to parenting (and child development)
1.

Age of parent: very young parents= put themselves and children at risk for poor dev. outcome2. Income/resources: poverty/ lack of resources= problematic, or adequate income3. Marital status/ relationship quality- having a positive relationship w/ significant other (married or not) eases transition4. Gender of parent: Mothers= physical changes, lack of sleep, birth & care immediately, Fathers may feel left out5.

Communication skills/ attitude: Ability to balance the needs of others, engage in mutual problem-solving, be flexible, positive attitude, negotiate conflict (ALL EASE TRANSITION)6. Division of workload/ support:- Support from spouse, extended family, friends-dividing up workload w/ significant other