CHDV154 – Parenting Issues Exam 2- CHAPTER 7

physical milestones/growth of infants & toddlers
– Newborns sleep more, mostly in REM cycle
– born w/ reflexes (grasping, walking, rooting)
-Rapid in first 2 years of life (physical
– High growth period= more susceptible to toxins
– Occurs from inside- out & top- down
– brain development first
– well developed senses except for sight (until 6 months) can’t see up close
brain development of infants & toddlers
-Synaptogenesis= new connections in brain
– Synaptic pruning= if you dont use a connection, you lose it
– Increased myelination= fatty sheath around neuron that improves complex thinking, more organized behavior
intellectual milestones of infants & toddlers
– Increased sophistication of behaviors (thumb sucking- goal direct behavior)
– Conceptual milestones= object permanence (linked to attachment)
– Self regulation, symbolic thought, imitation
– Language development- learn very young (diff. bet ba & pa)
Emotional expression/regulation of infants & toddlers and ways to promote
– Basic emotions emerge early- 6-8 weeks= social smile, (1st year= surprised, happy, sad, fearful, angry), Increasing need for self- regulation- skill starts early, ability to soothe themselves (thumb sucking)
Temperament examples of temperament characteristics of infants & toddlers
– Emotional style= stable individual differences in quality & intensity of emotional response
– Includes: fearfulness, irritable distress, positive affect, activity level, attention, rhythmicity
easy, difficult, slow-to-warm up profiles and goodness of fit
– Easy child= 40%, rhythmic, cheerful, adapt easily to new experiences
– Difficult child= 10% slow to adapt
– Slow to warm child = 15%. inactive, low key responses, adjust slowly to environment
high activity, high intensity pleasure, exuberant
Effortful control
ability to focus/ sustain attention
Negative emotionality
predictive of development
differential susceptibility hypothesis
– Children may differ in terms of:
EX- child high in surgency– susceptible to low care daycare
Attachment and how to promote secure attachment (characteristics of sensitive interactions)
– Sensitivity: prompt, appropriate, responses. EX: parent picks up child when cries
– Positive attitude: positive affect, affection
– Synchrony: Smooth, reciprocal interactions
– Mutuality: engaged in similar activities
– Support: close attention & emotional support
– Stimulation: frequent attention, direction of activitie
Tell me 2 things to promote secure attachment
– Sensitivity: prompt, appropriate, responses. EX: parent picks up child when cries
– Positive attitude: positive affect, affection
– Synchrony: Smooth, reciprocal interactions
– Mutuality: engaged in similar activities
– Support: close attention & emotional support
– Stimulation: frequent attention, direction of activities
Concerns of parents of infants
1. Crying & Sleeping: crying increases over first 6 weeks–> response to early crying (soothe/pick up) is linked to reduction in crying later on
– Co-sleeping: not necessary to attachment
2. Promoting Self-regulation and self control: Parent regulation–> co-regulation (helping child learn self regulation)–> self-recognition
– Baby: parent regulation (picking up)–> Toddler (co-regulation)–> Self control (wait 5 min to go to park
3. Safety: Label emotions, talk about emotions, most injuries happen at home, concern once children are mobile
physical development milestones of preschool aged children
– Slower growth (weight & height)
– Gross motor skills developed
– High activity level
– Balance improves
– Fine motor skills emerging
– Appetite changes- don’t eat as much
cognitive changes of preschool aged children
– Thought complex becomes more symbolic & complex
– Able to group & classify objects
– Attention is sustained & planful
– Improving memory function
– Make- believe play becomes more complex
– Can distinguish appearance from reality
Develops counting skills, basic concepts
changes in language skill of preschool aged children
– Vocabulary increases rapidly
– Simple sentences appear; sentences more complex & grammatical
– Develops conversational skills (pragmatics) & turn taking
changes in emotion understanding of preschool aged children
– Social emotions/ secondary emotions (ex: pride, embarasment) expressed
– Regulation is often difficult
– Understands & able to identify basic emotions before they enter school
changes in parent-child relationships of preschool aged children
-Relationship becomes more reciprocal (children are now able to reciprocate because of increased language development– Give & take)
– Quality of the relationship is key
self control
– Acquires morally relavent roles & behaviors (able to repeat back)
– Delay of Gratification
gender development (identity, understanding of gender, stereotypes) of preschool aged children
– Preference for same sex playmates & gendered toys
– Gender specific labels by age 2 or 3 ( Mom, dad, boy, girl)
– Lack understanding of fixed nature of gender (man dressed as woman= woman)
– Develop rigid gender stereotypes (less rigid w/time)
peer relationships and changes in social interactions of preschool aged children
– First friendships form (superficial–> based on playmates)
– Physical aggression more frequent (don’t know how to solve problem w/o aggression)
– Empathy increases
– Interactive play increases; cooperation appears
prosocial behavior of preschool aged children
– Prosocial behavior emerges (helping others)
tantrums and techniques for dealing with them (preschool aged children)
* Element of reasoning= most important
– Induction v. Power assertion
– Induction= consequences are pointed out to child & explain why behavior is bad ( You hurt your sister, look she’s crying)
– Power assertion: getting things done through your own power ( Do it because I said so) – doesn’t provide reasoning
– Avoiding coercive cycles. (Coercive cycles= manipulative action of child & escalates)
– Spanking/ physical punishment ( not effective in long run)
– Strategies for tantrums (ignore it, no attention, distracting, explain what needs to happen ahead of time & give time warnings, active listening/repeating)
depression/mental illness and how affects parenting (preschool aged children
– Linked to insecure attachments
– Depression= not a sensitive caregiver (difficult)
– Infants can become depressed themselves ( child= more irritable)
substance abuse (preschool aged children), effects of
– Often co- occuring with depression
– Affects children prenatally
– Compromising parenting skills
parenting difficulties with premature infants
– Due to substance abuse/depression
– Birth defects due to teratogens
– Adjustment much more difficult when child has health issue (need more care from parents)