CHDV154 – Parenting Issues Exam 2- CHAPTER 8

cognitive achievements in middle childhood/school aged children
-Thought becomes more logical
– Can give & follow clear, well-organized directions
– Uses memory strategies; shows metamemory
– Ability to monitor self during cognitive tasks
-Attention is more selective & adaptable
effects of schooling/ influences on school success (school/middle aged children)
– Spend considerable amount of time in structured school environment
– Some skills highly influenced by school entry
-Children learn about their abilities and how they compare with peers
changes in language development (school-aged children)
– Vocabulary increases rapidly (> 40,000 words by age 11)
-Grasps double meaning, metaphors, irony, humor
-Adapts speech to listener
changes in emotion understanding (school aged children
– Broadened understanding/expression of emotions ( social emotions, emotional ambiguity, understand that they can hold more than one emotion at same time)
– Self- esteem tends to rise; more complex understanding of self
– changes in parent- child relationships
changes in parent-child relationships (school aged children
-Children now spending more time in school, spending less time with child
-Relationship is much more intense, more peer involvement, reciprcoal relationship
changes in moral development (school aged children)
– More responsible and independent ( greater skills)
– Reasoning about fairness is more complex (concerned about what is fair/unfair)
– Experiences guilt/remorse, can make amends
– Empathy is more fully developed, leads to increases in prosocial behavior ( feeling bad for others, talking about and helping)
peer relationships and friendships(school aged children)
• Social and social-cognitive groups
– Perspective- taking is better
– More prosocial
– Physical aggression declines
– Better social problem solvers
• Peer Groups
– Age 9-11 formation of peer groups (peer group= groups of equals)
• Peer rejection/bullying
– Bullying seen more in adolescence
– Children start rejecting peers(Peer rejection= being actively disliked/
promoting positive relationships(school aged children)
1. Parent-child relationships
– Shift to more monitoring,
-talk to child about peer relations at school
2. Sibling relationships
– Can be rocky during this period, can be due to spacing and gender
– Many parents ignore sibling conflict, depends on situation
– Should: 1. if any overt aggression or name calling – parents should intervene 2. the younger the child, the more parents need to intervene in sibling conflict (if older it can be beneficial to have kids work it out themselves 9,10, 11 year olds) 3. Don’t treat them largely differently
3. Peer relationships
– Parents need to monitor, talk about peer relationships, promote friendships & consistent relationships with peers — extracurricular activities etc.
adjustment to school and promoting academic achievement (school aged children)
1. Parent Involvement
= Social characteristics, general beliefs/behaviors, beliefs about child, specific behaviors
2. Motivation (Dweck
– To what do we attribute to our success?
– Parents should promote Mastery orientation (attributing success to internal abilities, failures to external factors)
– Learning v. Performance goals: Learning goals= goal of challenging tasks is tolearn things, performance goals= goal of tasks is to get a good grade.
Kids with performance goals will do what they need to get an A, children with learning goals learn more. Praise childs ability to promote learning goals!