CHDV154 – Parenting Issues Exam 2- CHAPTER 9

physical/pubertal changes/health (adolescents)
– Adolescent growth spurt, reproductive organs mature
– Girls age 13, boys age15
– Girls: more body fat, menstruation begins
-Boys: add muscle, voice deepens, first ejaculation, taller
– Outcomes for early maturation: Girls= hitting growth spurt early has negative consequences- strongly linked to depression or poor school outcome, changes are more obvious. Boys= fewer negative outcomes- match up with girls, changes are more valued.
sexual  behavior of adolescents
– First sexual intercourse likely to occur during adolescence before 18 (50%); boys more likely than girls
-Rates of contraception relatively low especially among younger adolescents
-Likely to become aware of sexual orientation
cognitive achievements of adolescents
– Capable of hypothetical and abstract thought: What if…
– Can coordinate theory and evidence, scientific thinking
– More self- conscious and self-focused, then less so
– More idealistic and critical: have a hard time with gray areas, hypocricy
– Cognitive monitoring improves: able to know how long it will take to finish something
-Better at everyday planning and decision making & future planning: particularly later in adolescence
schooling (transition to secondary school) of adolescents
– School transitions bring, result in temporary decreased in self-esteem
– Low achieving students across ethnicity and social class are more likely to have poorer academic and social outcomes
changes in parent-adolescent relationship
– Increased critical ability allows for more autonomy, potential conflict
– Can expect better decisions, but take into account cognitive limitations
– Continued parental involvement in school and extracurricular activities helps with achievement
changes in sibling relationships during adolescense
Sibling relationships typically improve: children are improving in social and social cognitive skills, siblings are companions, supportive
identity development of adolescents
– Erikson- identity v. identity diffusion:
-Establishing a unified, holistic self-portrait that unifies the private self with the public self (acting yourself)
– Stability and consistency in self
– Prepares for future intimacy
– Identity “crisis”? – research indicates its not as much of a crisis as people think

– Marcia – Identity Statuses (occupation, political affiliation, religion, relationships)
– diffusion
– foreclosure
– moratorium
– achievement

peer relationships (cliques, crowds) of adolescents
– Spends more time with peers
– Conformity to peer pressure increases, then declines
– Peer groups organized around cliques and crowds
– Friendships based on intimacy and loyalty
– Shows increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior
dating (characteristics of these relationships) of adolescents
– Tends to be intense and short lived
– Personality rated as most important reason fro dating by both boys and girls
– Quality of peer relationships related to quality of dating relationships
ways of promoting positive peer relationships of adolescents
1. Parents/Family- start conversations until you get a response
2. Peers- monitoring peer relationships, encourage behavior that promotes peer acceptance and high quality friendships, encouraging/rewarding outgoing behavior, self control, social skills, avoidance of aggression, respectful/polite behavior, good appearance/hygeine
ways to promote academic achievement of adolescents
• Involvement often declines, yet shouldn’t
– Direct communication of expectations
– Support for developing academic skills
– Frequency of talking to teachers
– Parent interest in planning for post- high school activities
– Parent monitoring of school work