a thin layer of gases surrounding the earth. it has density and atmospheric pressure. they both vary throughout the atmosphere due to gravitational forces that pull the gas molecules towards the Earth’s surface. Atmospheric pressure is measured by mass per unit in air.
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE DECREASES WITH ALTITUDE. AIR AT SEA LEVEL HAS A HIGHER DENSITY THAN AIR AT THE TOP OF A MOUNTAIN. the ATMOSPHERE is divided into spherical layers with different temperature, pressure, and composition.
Layers of the Earth’s Atmosphere
Closest to most far1. Troposphere2.
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Stratosphere3. Mesosphere4. Thermosphere
75-80% of earth’s massclosest to earth’s surfaceat equator:extends 11 milesat poles:extends 5 milesNitrogen: 78%Oxygen: 21%Water Vapor, CO2, Argon, and other gases: 1%Long-term climate, short-term weather, and Earth’s geo-chemical cycles
lower 15km of atmosphere
the air is fairly similar due to TURBULENCE AND MIXING
highest gas concentration at 10-50km
highest concentration at 100-200km
Highest concentration at 200-1100km
Highest concentration at 1100-3500
contains the GOOD ozone;-keeps away 95% of harmful UV radiation-protects us from immune damage, cancers, cataracts, and sunburn of the eyes and skin.it is the second layer of the Earth’s Atmosphereit extends 11-30 miles above the earth’s surface
it is produced when oxygen molecules mix with UV radiationthe GOOD OZONE in the STRATOSPHERE is DECREASINGthe BAD OZONE in the TROPOSPHERE is INCREASING 🙁
high concentrations of chemicals in the atmosphere that affect climate and harm organisms and materials
enter directly into the atmosphere; soot and carbon dioxide
primary pollutants mixed together
Classes of air pollutants
carbon oxides, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, VOC’S, PTM’s, photochemical oxidants, radioactive substances, and hazardous air pollutants
Air Pollutants come from these natural sources
Forest fires, volcanic eruptions, VOC’s released by plants, dust particles, decay of plants, and sea spray.
formed as a result of photochemical reactions between VOC’s and nitrogen oxides.
Ozone concentrations are greatest on warm sunny days and are associated with high air pressure