Organic compounds made up of atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. An example is Freon-12 (CCl2F2), used as a refrigerant in refrigerators and air conditioners and in making plastics such as Styrofoam. Gaseous CFCs can deplete the ozone layer when they slowly rise into the stratosphere and their chlorine atoms react with ozone molecules.
Warming of the earth’s atmosphere because of increases in the concentrations of one or more greenhouse gases primarily as a result of human activities. See greenhouse effect, greenhouse gases.
positive feedback loop
Situation in which a change in a certain direction provides information that causes a system to change further in the same direction. Compare negative feedback loop.
negative feedback loop
Situation in which a change in a certain direction provides information that causes a system to change less in that direction. Compare positive feedback loop.
combine the effects of the atmosphere and the oceans on climate
changes in any aspect of the earth’s climate, including temperature, precipitation, and storm intensity
a scientific intergovernmental body tasked with evaluating the risk of climate change caused by human activity
moderate (a quality or condition) in force or intensity; alleviate.
any genetically controlled structural physiology or behavioral characteristic that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions.
An international agreement that aims to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and the presence of greenhouse gases.
A permit that allows the holder to emit one ton of carbon dioxide. Credits are awarded to countries or groups that have reduced their green house gases below their emission quota.
cap and trade
reducing pollution by economic incentives for achieving reductions in emissions
also greenhouse gases. The increases in concentrations of these chemicals have produced 0.34 ± 0.03 W/m? of radiative forcing, corresponding to about 14% of the total radiative forcing from increases in the concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases