Climate Change and Ozone Depletion

Kyoto Protocol

China, India, and the United States are not required to reduce their emissions by the international ______.


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It requires 38 participating developed countries to cut their emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O to an average of at least 5.2% below 1990 levels by 2012.


It allows greenhouse gas emissions trading among participating countries.

positive feedback loops
Causes a system to change further in the same direction.
negative feedback loop
Causes a system to change in the opposite direction.

a system of colloidal particles dispersed in a gas; smoke or fog


a liquid substance, as a disinfectant or deodorant, sealed in a metal container under pressure with an inert gas or other activating agent and released as a spray or foam through a push-button valve or nozzle

carbon sequestration

capturing and storing CO2 emissions


plant trees that isolate CO2 biomass and couple this with a significant reduction in deforestation and greater control of insects and diseases that kill trees

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC or CCl3F)

Chemically unreactive, odorless, nonflammable, nontoxic, and noncorrosive.


Inexpensive to manufacture, it became popular as a coolant in air conditioners and refrigerators, a propellant in aerosol spray can, a cleaner for electronic parts, a fumigant for granaries and ship cargo holds, and bubbles in plastic foam used for insulation and packaging.


Lowers the average concentration of ozone in the stratosphere.

hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

Substitutes for CFCs


They pose a much lower threat to ozone in the stratosphere but are much more expensive that CFCs and are potent greenhouse gases while they are in the troposphere.

Ultraviolet A

This long-wavelength form of radiation causes aging of the skin, tanning, and sometimes sunburn


It penetrates deeply and may contribute to skin cancer.

Ultraviolet B

This shorter-wavelength form of radiation causes sunburn, premature aging, and wrinkling


It is largely responsible for basal and sqamous cell carcinomas and plays a role in malignant melanoma.

Montreal Protocol
Goal was to cut emissions of CFCs by about 35% between 1989 and 2000.
caused or produced by humans