Country Notebook

Indus river plain is the earliest evidence of civilization and several years later the Ganges river plain was populated and eventually these two places are known as Father and mother of India. The Indus river flows southwest through the Punjab area and empties into the Arabian Sea near Sins. The Ganges River flows from southeast into the Bay of Bengal. Indus valley civilization was named as the Indian’s first civilization was along the Indus River. In India every religion has its own characteristics and traditions, like the palm-leaf houses in the south are not similar to the stone houses of the Himalayas or the houseboats of Kashmir.

Every state has its own identity which is respected by people in India and also the world. (1) Relevant History India is the home of ancient Indus valley civilization and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires. India was identified for its commercial and cultural wealth. Religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jansenism and Schism are originated here. India was brought under the administration by British East India Company in the early 18th century which is directly administrated by United Kingdom. India gained its independence in 1947 a struggle for independence which was marked by non-violent resistance which was led by

Mahatma Gandhi. India is a federal constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system which consists and multi-ethnic society. It is also a home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. Geographical Setting A) Location India is located in southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal and surrounded by many neighboring countries like Bangladesh, Burma, china, Nepal, and Pakistan. Its geographic coordinates are 2000 N, 7700 E. The total area is about 3,287,263 sq. Km. The comparison to the world is 7. The total land area is 2,973,193 sq. M and water is 314,070 sq. M. (The World Fact book”). Indian’s coastline measures 7,517 kilometers in length, of its distance 5,423 kilometers belong to peninsular India and 2094 kilometers to the Madman and Nicolai and Leaseholder island chains. India is more than one third the size of the United States in terms of area. B) Climate Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and Tear Desert both of which drives the economic and cultural which has a crucial importance in relation with the summer and winter monsoons. The climate varies from tropical mansion in south to temperate in north.

C) Topography The three major features which fill the Indian landscape are the Himalayas and associated ranges, a geologically young mountain belt, folded, faulted, and uplifted, that marks the nation’s northern boundary and effectively seals India climatically from other Asian countries. The Peninsula, a huge stable massif of ancient crystalline rock, severely weathered and eroded. The Ganges-Apparatus Lowland, a structural trough between the two rivers, now an alluvial plane carrying some of Indian’s major rivers from the Peninsula and the Himalayas to the sea.

There is also a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea and a wider one along he Bay of Bengal. Social Institutions A) Nuclear Family Family is very important to the people of India. The nuclear family is a shared authority of the mother and father. Family status defines access to education and achieving prominence and wealth. Each member of the family remains loyal to their family and behaves according with accepted standards of behavior so not to bring disgrace to the family honor. The virtues of being brought up in a Joint family have always helped individuals in incorporating values that hold them in good stead.

Most parents feel the bond that a child shares with his parents is stronger when they live n a nuclear family. Nuclear units give parents more time to concentrate on the development of their child. B) Extended family An extended family is defined as a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the to a nuclear family. An elderly parent who moves in with his or her children due to old age can be taken as example. These families include, in one household, near relatives in addition to a nuclear family.

An example would be an elderly parent who moves in with his or her children due to old age. In India most of the families are extended ones, where, every member has his/her own role, influenced by age and gender. Children are protected, loved, cared and considered to be gifts from God. The family structure in India is typical, where; there are many wedding customs which have to be strongly followed by everyone. Religion, caste, traditional practices, and regional differences influence family structures. Indians are more emotionally attached to the members of their family. 1) Dynamics of the Family A) Parental Roles Even though the husband and wife share authority, the wife usually has more influence over the children and the housework. Father would be taking care of the family and the house hold responsibilities. B) Marriage and Courtship In Indian culture men and women complement each other. Women traditionally would live the life of a mother and a wife following the footsteps of their ancestors. Family is very important role in the tradition. It is a female’s role as a wife to bear her husband and children and educate them in their traditional practices.

To maintain their dominance over the women, men have their wives maintain the home and family that he made and provided for. It is in the major outlook on relationships that Indians are vastly different, in the way they perceive the institution of marriage, to those beliefs of other countries especially in the west. A daughter is said to marry into a family in India. Marriage is not perceived as a relationship between two people but as a relationship between families and especially between the girl and her husband’s family.

This is mainly due to the fact that many Indians live in Joint families where the wives enter into and live with the husband’s family. So a family with several sons will have their wives and children all living together in the same house. Marriage is considered to be the most important phases of one’s life in India. It is the vows taken during a wedding, which explains the meaning of marriage in Indian culture. Traditionally arranged marriages have continued to live on strongly.

Families of prospective brides and grooms search for suitable matches, generally within their own community. The decision of marriage is taken collectively by the entire family. Today, the couple meets each other before they tie the knot, so as to get acquainted with each other. In India, marriages are considered to be a union of the families, rather than that of Just two individuals. C) Female Traditionally all the expectation of the family members is fulfilled by women in the family. The behavior and the activities she does are appreciated by husband and and business.

Today, the change in society, globalization, liberalizing, the decay of institution of marriage and a growing emphasis on education have helped status of women in family business get raised. There is a lot of change in past couple of decades in increasing importance of educational qualification. Educational A) The Role of Education in Society Education is undoubtedly one of the most important factors that impacted the Roth and development of a country and also the future course of the country’s people. Education in India annually brings a perfect and successful batch of youth. 2) a) Primary Education The Indian government gives more importance to primary education up to the age of fourteen. The government has also banned child labor in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions. Although both free education and the ban on child labor are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions. 80% of all recognized schools at the Elementary Stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the Country. B) Higher Education Secondary education in India covers children 14-18 which covers 88. Million children according to the Census, 2001. However, enrolment figures show that only 31 million of these children were attending schools in which shows that two- third of the population remained out of school in India. (3) Political System A) Political Structure India is a union of states, a Sovereign, Secular, and Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government. The Indian Politics are governed in terms of the Constitution, which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949 ND came into force on 26 November 1950.

The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. Real executive power vests in a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as head. Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to aid and advise the President who shall, in exercise of his functions will act in accordance with such advice. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Look Saba which is called as the House of the People. The Governor is the representative of the President in each state.

He is the head of Executive, but eel executive power rests with the Chief Minister who heads the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers of a state is collectively responsible to the elected legislative assembly of the state. The Constitution governs the sharing of legislative power between Parliament and the State Legislatures, and provides for the vesting of President and Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President. B) Political Parties A recognized political party has been classified as a National Party or a State Party.

If a political party is recognized in four or more states then it is considered as a National Party. India has a multi- party system with predominance of small regional parties. Political parties that wish to contest in local, state or national elections should be registered by four or more states. C) Stability of Government The political stability of the political environment of India differs in type of perspective you look at it. The stability of the government collapsing or prospering depends on how the government and people may evolve later on.

D) Special Taxes The Central Government has been empowered by Entry 82 of the Union List of Schedule VII of the Constitution of India to levy tax on all income other than agricultural income. (4) The Income Tax Law comprises The Income Tax Act 1961 , Income Tax Rules 1962, Notifications and Circulars issued by Central Board of Direct Taxes (CB), Annual Finance Acts and Judicial pronouncements by Supreme Court and High Courts. The government imposes an income tax on taxable income of all persons including individuals, companies, and firms, association of persons, body of individuals, local authority and any other artificial Judicial person.

Levy of tax is separate on each of the persons. The tax collect is governed by the Indian Income Tax Act, 1961. The Indian Income Tax Department is governed by CB and is part of the Department of Revenue under the Ministry of Finance, Gobo. Of India. Income tax is a key source of funds that the government uses to fund its activities and serve the public. The Income Tax Department is the biggest revenue immobilizers for the Government. E) Role of Local Government The local government in India is the third level of government apart from the State and Central governments.

There are two types of Local Government in operation; they are Penchants in rural areas and Municipalities in urban areas. (5) Penchants are a linked base system of local bodies with village, penchant smarmiest at the intermediate level, and district penchants. Legal System A) Organization of the Judiciary system The Indian Judiciary is partly a continuation of the British legal system established by the English in the mid-19th century. The Constitution of India is the supreme legal document of the country.

There are various levels of Judiciary in India like different types of courts, each with varying powers depending on the tier and Jurisdiction present. They form a strict power of importance, in line with the order of the courts. The Supreme Court of India is at the top, followed by High Courts of respective states tit district Judges sitting in District Courts and Magistrates of Second Class and Civil between individuals and the government. The Indian Judiciary is independent of the executive and legislative branches of government according to the Constitution.

B) Participation in Patents, Trademarks and Other Conventions There is a national office for the protection of intellectual property rights in India and the nation is a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPE). Excluded from design protection are modes of construction, mechanical devices, trademarks, and artistic works defined in copyright laws. The term of a patent in most countries is 20 years, subject to the payment of annual renewal fees. At filing of an Indian design, the design will be examined as to form, registration and as to anticipation by any design already registered in India.

The duration of an Indian design is 15 years and is subjected to a renewal after ten years. An Indian trademark is defined as any mark which is distinctive, or capable of becoming distinctive, of goods for which it is sought to be registered. The duration of an Indian Trademark is 10 years from date of application, renewable indefinitely for further 10 year periods. 6) Social Organizations A) Group Behavior Group behavior in sociology refers to the situations where people interact in large or small groups.

Groups of a large number of people in a given area may act simultaneously to achieve a goal that differs from what individuals would do acting alone. B) Social Classes The characteristics of the people and linguistic diversity of India is proverbial and rivals the diversity of continental Europe which is not India. India contains a large number of different regional, social, and economic groups, each with distinctive or diverse customs and cultural practices. Region-wise, differences between social structures of Indian’s north and south are marked, especially with respect to family relationships.

Religious differences are spread throughout the country. There is the Hindu majority and the large minority and hundreds of gibberellins or religious communities within larger communities. Each group is proud of its faith and very sure of its superiority over other faiths. (7) C) Race, Ethnicity, and subcultures India is of great interest country where people of many different communities and religions live together in unity. Indian Population is of having many or several efferent sources of origin and is an amazing process of various races and cultures. It is impossible to find out the exact origin of Indian People.

In the Kowalski foothills of north western Himalayas the species known as Rematches was found. The species believed to be the first in the line of human family lived some 14 million years ago. Researchers have found that a species resembling the Streptococcus lived in India some 2 million years ago. Even this discovery leaves an evolutionary gap of as much as 12 million years since Rematches. There are many diverse ethnic groups among the people of India. The main 6 ethnic groups are as follows. 2. Proto – Australians or Caustics 3. Mongolism 4. Mediterranean or Dravidian 5.

Western Breathlessly 6. Nordic Aryans Business customs and practices A) Business Ethic and Framework Multinational companies have driven the rapid economic expansion of India at a remarkable pace. Also Indian’s infrastructure has not kept up with demand, the poor are not able to tap into the economic act of flowing in, and multinationals have raised locals concerns on what ethical practices should be driven within the country. The new ethical framework will also apply Indian tradition in the context of present and sat reflection to try hard for Justice in the new expansion of India.

An additional framework of the ethical model is globalization to ensure that business hard works forward but at the same time considers the realities of the market situation. B) Decision Making In India the business culture is a reflection of the various guidelines and standards followed by its people. Indians have various cultures commonly marked with subdivisions, which extend to their business culture too. It is important that a person visiting the country has an idea of the business culture of India and some basic idea grading the business ethics and customs followed here.

Having a firm holding on Indian business culture will ensure that you succeed in maintaining a well-earned affinity with your business counterparts. A sound knowledge of Indian’s cultural practices and business conventional requirements as to social behavior is necessary for any trade or business venture within the country would not only demonstrate a respect for India but will also create a feel good factor amongst the prospective clients. Companies in India follow the hierarchical system and decision making is usually from the top to bottom.

It could at times be time consuming, International companies show respect to this. The lack of infrastructure and inadequate supply chain management can also act as passageway for foreign investment. (8) C) Meeting Upon the type of organization meeting styles will be heavily dependent with which you are engaged in business. Most of the highly successful hi-tech, and bio-science industries are actively pursuing western-style business methodology and this will result in meetings following familiar patterns with agendas, a chairperson and reasonable time keeping.

More traditional Indian companies will, retain more encores on local approaches to meetings caused for international business travelers. Meetings with more traditional Indian organizations are likely to be more informal with the possibility of interruptions where unknown people enter the room and start to converse about other, disconnected issues or where your contact breaks off to answer the phone. D) Women organization. If a woman has the position of manager, she must be there for a reason and her instructions will be followed Just in effort to accomplish something as those of a male manager.

The vast majority of senior managers in India are men, there is a rowing of key group of women officers who are working their way up the corporate ladder and this trend is expected to grow along with the increasing levels of women’s education and the influence of western multinational companies in the business landscape of the country. It is important that women managers act at all times in a formal manner with male subordinates, as any open to view signs of friendship or affection could be take in wrong sense. Religion and Aesthetics A) Religion and other belief systems In India there about 7 out of 10 people are Hindus.

Hindus believe in a supreme being called Brahmas. This supreme power is represented by three main Gods. Brahmas, he is the generator/creator, Vishnu, he is the operator/preserver; and Shiva, the destroyer. There are hundreds of other gods and goddesses. Hindus believe in rebirth of a life. That mean when a person dies, he or she is born again as a different living being in a different part of the world. The soul of a living being is always alive. It is the body of that person that gets old or worn out and dies. Once the person dies, the soul is transferred to another body.

Therefore, the aim of a Hindu is to get away from this cycle of birth and rebirth. Hindus worship many gods in many different ways in India. Some go to the temple offering flowers and fruit as a sacrifice or bring flowers and sweets as offerings. Some people have a small place in their home, usually in a kitchen corner or a separate room where all members of the family worship. B) Aesthetics a) Visual Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy which deals with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

It is scientifically defined as the study of emotional values like Judgments of sentiment and taste. Indian performances are exciting as they use fresh colors, and bright, expensive costumes or every character. This is idealistic, and the audience would have to suspend their disbelief, the clothes are loose and would be comfortable for performing in heat. There would also be a variety of costumes and costume changes could make the performances aesthetically stimulating. Indian performers often wear no shoes, in order to have a closer connection with the earth. 10) b) Performance There are different communities around the world serving different purposes. A community interacting with every individual and tends to affect everyone’s life one way or the other. Even though every human is unique a community describes a roof of people who have something in common. People all over India belongs to a variety of different communities depending upon their geographic location, values and beliefs, social and recreational interests, history, culture, and language, education and skills, family and race. Culture includes various religious activities house or for the wellbeing of their family.

Also many religious performances like “Garb,” which is a dance activity done to worship a Hindu goddess “Mamba. ” Dance is considered to be a form of art. India is a land of different cultures and traditions. Diversities in all spheres make the Indian culture quite unique. Indian folk and tribal dances are simple and are performed to express Joy. In India we have festivals and celebrations virtually every day which has added to the richness of Indian culture. C) Literature Indian literature is generally believed to be the oldest in the world which has vast cultural diversities with around twenty four officially recognized languages.

Over thousands of years, huge literature has been produced in various languages in India. In India large part of literature revolves around devotion, drama, poetry and songs. Sanskrit language dominated the early Indian literary. Living Conditions A) Diet and Nutrition The real issue today is not the availability of food but of its affordability by the poor. Also the food and nutrition security based on the access to a diet of high nutritional quality is seriously considered. Diet and nutrition has significant role in India because of malnourishment has been more acute than hunger.

B) Housing Housing in India varies greatly and reflects the socio-economic mix of its vast population. The life-style in villages takes advantage of the condition of warm weather. Families bath outdoors in rivers and ponds. Most of the day is spent outdoors around or near the house. Cooking is conducted outdoors in earthen stoves powered by organic fuels or in modern kerosene stoves. Water is obtained from hand-drawn wells. There are certain unique characteristics of Indian culture which drives its housing. The most common structure is for the extended family to live in the same house.

For example grandparents, their sons, daughters-in-law and grandchildren live in the same household sharing the same kitchen. Brothers, sisters and cousins grow up together. Each husband-wife combination has own bedroom. C) Clothing Indian clothing varies from region to region which depends on the ethnicity, geology, climate, and cultural traditions of the people of that region. D) Recreation Field hockey is considered as the national sport in India. India also won eight Olympic gold medals in this sport. But cricket is the most popular sport in India.

E) Social Security India has a very basic social security system catering to a fairly small percentage of the country’s workforce. Traditionally, Indians relied on their extended families for support in the event of illness. However, due to migration, arbitration and higher social mobility, family bonds are less tight and family units much smaller than they used to be. (11) F) Health care Health care is highly developed in India. India has a universal health care system Language The Indian official language is Hindi, while English is the secondary official language.

Different languages are spoken in different regions in India. According to census of India there are 30 languages spoken in India in different states. Population Population explosion is the most serious problem facing in India. India is second largest population country in the world with 16 percent of the world’s population. As ere the 1991 census Indian population stood at 846. 30 million with 439. 23 males and 407. 07 females. The countries population is currently estimated at about 1241. 5 million in 2011. The population growth is rapid in past few years.

Economic statistics and activity The Indian economy was based on a mixed economy which has combined features of capitalism and socialism. (2) India is growing into an open market economy. It is the tenth- largest in the world by nominal GAP and the third largest by purchasing power parity. (1) According to 2012 statistics India ranked 141 by nominal GAP and 130 by purchasing power parity. An international monetary fund has shown that India is the 19th largest exporter and 10th largest importer in the world. Minimum wage Of Indian is RSI. 60/day, 79% of the population is rural in India. 7% of the rural population lives in poverty. Mean annual household income: 34,551 rupees. Mineral and Natural resources Minerals are valuable natural resources being finite and non-renewable. They constitute the vital raw materials for many basic industries and are a major resource for development. The history of mineral extraction in India dates back to the days of the Hard pan civilization. The wide availability of the minerals in the form of abundant rich reserves made it very conducive for the growth and development of the mining sector in India.