Critically discuss the contention that criminology is “the study of the causes of came”. Nowadays, it is easy to find crime news in the newspaper. The number of crime increase year by year because of the complexity of society. Crime is a contest word. There are various definitions in different perspective such as Crime is the behavior prohibited by the criminal code in legal perspective (Wallet, 2011). Early criminologists aimed to develop more rational and efficient ways of dealing with crime which is called “criminological project” (Corolla, 2011).
Criminology is to investigate the cause of crime. Therefore, I Greer with the contention in the high extent of degree. However, criminology is a diverse discipline characterized by comparing theoretical perspectives which means it is multidisciplinary (Wallet, 2007; Wallet, 2011). It involves a lot of disciplinary such as psychology, politics, economic, sociology and so on. Therefore, there is wide study for the criminologists to investigate crime.
In this essay, I would like to discuss four main subjects that we need to study in criminology: analyses the cause of crime, crime prevention, explore the media presentation of crime and understand the formation and application f law (walking, 201 1). In the early stage, criminology could be classified into two types: Classical criminology and Positivist criminology (Wallet, 2007). Classical Criminology is an assumption of how individual commit crime. The key presumption is that individuals have free Will so that they can choose to violate upon the society.
For instance, someone steal or kill someone is to reach their self-interested goal. Because of the hedonism, they pursue of the minimization of pleasure and the minimization of pain (Weeklies, 2007); Positivist criminology contend that criminal behavior is caused by internal and external factors which is not controlled by the individuals. It usually used to consult a scientific agreement to collect the phenomena that distinguish the offenders from non-offenders which can aid to understand the causes of crime (Marshall, 1 998; Watts, Peasant and Hill, 2008).
In the contemporary society, criminologists study the four main factors which lead to the crime: Social disorientation, Strain theory, Social control theory and Labeling Theory. Social disorientation is mainly the immigration and subsequent migration because of the process of industrialization and arbitration which rate communities. It contended that the environment is the main factor to affect an individual to act illegally rather than their characteristics such as gender, age. It deteriorates the traditional norms and values.
Strain theory mainly concerns the legitimate and illegitimate means which deteriorates the norms and values of the society. In addition, the social structure may pressure the citizens which they cannot achieve their goal by legal means, this will be resulted in criminal and deviant behavior in order to achieve the goal. Social control theory concerns general social process rather than individual action. The theory contends that less of social bonds such as involvement, commitment and beliefs will cause crime.
Labeling Theory is the study of how the self-value and behavior of individuals will be influenced when they are labeled and classified as “outsiders” (Wallet, 2007). In addition to study the cause of crime, the criminologists need to study how to prevent the further crimes. As it is mentioned that criminology is a multidisciplinary subject. Criminologists have their particular specialists such as economists, psychologists, politicians and so on.
Therefore, they have a number of ideas ND sometimes argue with each other as their viewpoints are different (Wallet, 2011; Watts, Peasant and Hill, 2008) so that their conclusion will be more feasible and more acceptable by criminologists. There are various types of crimes such as war crime, corporate crime, murder, rape and so on. It is because the criminologists can intervene into policymaking process, it is important to study the prevention of crime to formulate more feasible policies to prevent such crimes (Wallet, 201 1).
Moreover, criminologists can have a more understanding about what is crime after studying the prevention f crime. They can prevent commit the crime at the same time; cultivate the next generation in order to reduce the toll Of crime. Understand ins the media presentation of crime is also important in criminology. Media is a platform for information spreading. We always get the information and news from the media. Therefore, media is vital in our daily life (Corolla, 201 1).
However, some media exaggerate the crime news in order to attract public attention and earn money which lead to moral panic and deviancy amplification spiral. The criminologists have responsibility to intervene the media. They will do research about the public opinion and media reporting the crime (Watts, Peasant and Hill, 2008). Therefore, criminology is also a study of media presentation so that the criminologists can analyze the ways of the media and supervise the operation of media to avoid causing chaos in the society. Understanding the process Of making law is also an important knowledge the criminologists need to study. Criminologists can evaluate the effectiveness and operation of the criminal justice systems like the courts and the police (Watts, Peasant and Hill 2008) so that they can maintain the system smoothly and effectively. In addition, the House of Commons in Parliament is democratically elected. Most of The Members of Parliament (MSP) are specialists. Some of them are criminologists which have responsibility to discuss political issue and proposals for new laws.
Therefore, it is utmost important to study the formation and application of law so that we can understand more about making an Act of Parliament and bill which can formulate laws more conveniently and effectively (Elliott and Quinn, 2012). Based on the above premise, it seems to be concluded that criminology is a wide subject which not only study the cause of crime, but also roved some suggestion to prevent crime, explore the media presentation Of crime and prevent the media exaggerate the crime to lead moral panic and deviancy amplification spiral.