CUA BIOL 341 Ecology Midterm

Kingdom Animalia
1. Multicellular heterotrophs which ingest their food2. lack rigid cell walls3.

most reproduce sexually, gametes form by meiosis

Porifera (sponges)
-multicellular-not organized into tissues or organs
Characteristics of sponges (4)
-cells embedded in matrix-chaonocytes & pores allow sponge to filter feed-anchor to seafloor, beat flagella to draw water in-some contain spongin
Cnidaria (Jellyfish, sea anemones, hydra)
radial & bilateral symmetryspecialized tissue
Characteristics of Jellyfish 
-bell (take water into bell, shoot out, allows swimming)-ocelli (“eyes”)-touch receptors-simple nervous system (helps determine position, detect presence of animals)-mouth-oral lobes-tentacles-eat fish, shrimp, eaten by larger fish, crabs, sea turtles
-stinging cells on tentacles & oral lobes-contain nematocysts – “harpoons” that spear prey, draw harpoon back to cnidocyte
reproduction of jellyfish
asexual & sexual phases, medusa & polypegg->planula->polyp->older disked polyp-> disk (young medusa) -> medusa
Platyhelminthes (flatworms & tapeworms)
-internal organs & symmetry-anterior brain, connected to (at least) one pair of nerve cords-eyes-protonephridia-hermaphroditic-mouth, larynx, simple gastrovascular cavity-O2 & CO2 diffuse across body 
Nematoda (roundworms)
-pseudocoelem-perfectly cylindrical body-move using undulations of body (press against particles-
-pseudocoelem-corona – ciliated surface, cilia beat in waves, gives impression of rotation-freshwater environ.
-coelem (completely enclosed in mesoderm)-specialized tissues-head-central sections w/ body’s organs, enclosed in mantle (tissue), includes gills-foot-tongue-like organ to capture food
Classes of Mollusca (3)
-Gastropods (snails ; slugs) – hard protective shell, use foot to crawl-Bivalves (clams, oysters, scallops) – 2-part shell w/ hinge-Cephalopods (octopuses ; squids) – no shell, use mantle for jet propulsion
-most are coiled-use foot to move, emit mucus from foot to glide (move more easily)-head – 2 pairs of tentacles (upper = light vs dark, lower = vibrations)-pneumostome (respiratory)-mouth
Snail Mating
-when ready to mate, move w/ foot raised-push feet together, insert dart, causes genital pore to come out-hermaphroditic, insert sperm into each other, eggs fertilized internally, laid 1-2 months later
-suckers on arms (allows “tasting” of food)-heart-kidneys-gills (work w/ funnel tubes which pull water over gills)-well developed head, brain, eyes (keen eyesight)
Annelida (WORMIES!)
-segmentation-circular ; longitudinal muscles-burrow for food in soil-earthworms have crop ; gizzards-closed circulatory system-ventral nerve cord-breathes through surface of body = moist envrionments!-taste, touch, sense light through skin
-used in mating in annelids-secretes mucus layer which brings eggs ; sperm together – called egg case
woody plants
cell walls contain lignin = wood-show secondary growth
herbaceous plants
no ligninno secondary growthstems ; leaves die @ end of growing season
herbaceousgo from seed to seed in less than 1 yrex. corn, marigolds, geraniums
herbaceous2 yr life cycleyr 1 – roots, basal rosetteyr 2 – stem ; flower producedafter seeds produced, plants dieex.

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carrots, lettuce

may be herbaceous or woodyflower repeatedly over many yrsabove ground leaves/stems of herb. plants die every yr;
vascular plants
contain root system ; shoot system (stems, leaves, flower ; fruits)
1. anchor/give support2. absorb nutrients3.

produce growth hormones

1. support leaves, allow as much light exposure as possible2. support vascular bundles3. store water/food
ground tissue system
photosynthesis, storage ; supportcontains parenchyma, collenchyma ; sclerenchyma cells
parenchyma cells
comprised of cellulosethin cell wallswater/food storage, photosynthesis
collenchyma cells
primary cell wallsecondary cell wall made of pectinsupport tissue
sclerenchyma cells
primary cell wallssecondary cell walls – made of cellulose ; lignin
vascular tissue system
xylem – transports water, made of tracheids (long hollow “pipes”) ; vesselsphloem – transports carbs, made of seive tube members
dermal tissue system
protects plantrestricts water losscuticle – waxy layer to prevent water loss;
;- opening in cuticle that permit passage of gas ; water-surrounded/regulated by guard cells-usually open during day, but can be closed based on conditions-when open, CO2 diffuses IN, H2O diffuses OUT
Meristematic tissue
responsible for growth of vascular plantsclusters of actively dividing, undifferentiated cells, which produce new cells
apical meristems
produce primary growth – tips ; roots of stemsex. buds, leaf elongation, etc.
lateral meristems
produce secondary growthincreases diameter of roots 7 stems
primary growth
apical meristem -; primary meristems1. protoderm – epidermis2.

ground meristem – parenchyma cells of cortex (chloroplasts!) ; pith3. procambium – differentiate into xylem ; phloem, undiff. = vascular cambium;

secondary growth
results from activity of vascular cambium -;divides into xylem ; phloem – single layer of each for each year = rings on trees!
movement of water in plants
water is required for:1. enzymatic reactions2.

photosynthetic cells must be moist to allow CO2 entry3. maintains rigidity

water potential
ability of water to move;described by ; (Psi)measured in MPA = Pa x 106influenced by pulling forces of soil, solute, etc.flows from HIGH (less negative) to LOW(more negative)
driving force behind movement of water-loss of water from internal atmosphere via stomata-when open stomata, water pulled up stem, big difference btwn amt of water in leaf vs outside of leaf = strong diffusion of water OUT of leaf
pull of water depends on:
1. sufficient sunlight for transpiration2. moisture availability in soil3. cohesion4. adhesion
matric potential
tendency of water to stick to soil surfacesdependent on soil texture
the process of turning solar energy into the chemical energy of sugar and other plant molecules-occurs in chloroplasts in mesophyllchlorophyll a is directly involved in conversion of solar-;chemical energy
C3 Photosynthesis

light-dependent:absorbs sunlight energy, convert to NADPH ; ATP, water is split, release O2 (includes photosystem I ; II, ETC) – carried out in mesophyll2. light-independent: CO2 converted to sugar – uses ATP ; NADPH (Calvin cycle) – occurs in stroma

C4 photosynthesis
CO2 entering leaf first converted to 4-C sugar before enters Calvin cycleoccurs in bundle-sheath cells;advantageous in hot regions w/ intense sunlight
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)
occur in mesophyll cellsopen stoma at night to capture CO2, but close while Calivin cycle is occurringprevalent in desert plants