CUA BIOL 341 Ecology Midterm

Kingdom Animalia

1. Multicellular heterotrophs which ingest their food

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2. lack rigid cell walls

3. most reproduce sexually, gametes form by meiosis

Porifera (sponges)


-not organized into tissues or organs

Characteristics of sponges (4)

-cells embedded in matrix

-chaonocytes & pores allow sponge to filter feed

-anchor to seafloor, beat flagella to draw water in

-some contain spongin

Cnidaria (Jellyfish, sea anemones, hydra)

radial & bilateral symmetry

specialized tissue

Characteristics of Jellyfish 

-bell (take water into bell, shoot out, allows swimming)

-ocelli (“eyes”)

-touch receptors

-simple nervous system (helps determine position, detect presence of animals)


-oral lobes


-eat fish, shrimp, eaten by larger fish, crabs, sea turtles


-stinging cells on tentacles & oral lobes

-contain nematocysts – “harpoons” that spear prey, draw harpoon back to cnidocyte

reproduction of jellyfish

asexual & sexual phases, medusa & polyp

egg->planula->polyp->older disked polyp

-> disk (young medusa) -> medusa

Platyhelminthes (flatworms & tapeworms)

-internal organs & symmetry

-anterior brain, connected to (at least) one pair of nerve cords




-mouth, larynx, simple gastrovascular cavity

-O2 & CO2 diffuse across body


Nematoda (roundworms)


-perfectly cylindrical body

-move using undulations of body (press against particles



-corona – ciliated surface, cilia beat in waves, gives impression of rotation

-freshwater environ.


-coelem (completely enclosed in mesoderm)

-specialized tissues


-central sections w/ body’s organs, enclosed in mantle (tissue), includes gills


-tongue-like organ to capture food

Classes of Mollusca (3)

-Gastropods (snails ; slugs) – hard protective shell, use foot to crawl

-Bivalves (clams, oysters, scallops) – 2-part shell w/ hinge

-Cephalopods (octopuses ; squids) – no shell, use mantle for jet propulsion


-most are coiled

-use foot to move, emit mucus from foot to glide (move more easily)

-head – 2 pairs of tentacles (upper = light vs dark, lower = vibrations)

-pneumostome (respiratory)


Snail Mating

-when ready to mate, move w/ foot raised

-push feet together, insert dart, causes genital pore to come out

-hermaphroditic, insert sperm into each other, eggs fertilized internally, laid 1-2 months later


-suckers on arms (allows “tasting” of food)



-gills (work w/ funnel tubes which pull water over gills)

-well developed head, brain, eyes (keen eyesight)

Annelida (WORMIES!)


-circular ; longitudinal muscles

-burrow for food in soil

-earthworms have crop ; gizzards

-closed circulatory system

-ventral nerve cord

-breathes through surface of body = moist envrionments!

-taste, touch, sense light through skin


-used in mating in annelids

-secretes mucus layer which brings eggs ; sperm together – called egg case

woody plants

cell walls contain lignin = wood

-show secondary growth

herbaceous plants

no lignin

no secondary growth

stems ; leaves die @ end of growing season



go from seed to seed in less than 1 yr

ex. corn, marigolds, geraniums



2 yr life cycle

yr 1 – roots, basal rosette

yr 2 – stem ; flower produced

after seeds produced, plants die

ex. carrots, lettuce


may be herbaceous or woody

flower repeatedly over many yrs

above ground leaves/stems of herb. plants die every yr


vascular plants
contain root system ; shoot system (stems, leaves, flower ; fruits)

1. anchor/give support

2. absorb nutrients

3. produce growth hormones


1. support leaves, allow as much light exposure as possible

2. support vascular bundles

3. store water/food

ground tissue system

photosynthesis, storage ; support

contains parenchyma, collenchyma ; sclerenchyma cells

parenchyma cells

comprised of cellulose

thin cell walls

water/food storage, photosynthesis

collenchyma cells

primary cell wall

secondary cell wall made of pectin

support tissue

sclerenchyma cells

primary cell walls

secondary cell walls – made of cellulose ; lignin

vascular tissue system

xylem – transports water, made of tracheids (long hollow “pipes”) ; vessels

phloem – transports carbs, made of seive tube members

dermal tissue system

protects plant

restricts water loss

cuticle – waxy layer to prevent water loss



;- opening in cuticle that permit passage of gas ; water

-surrounded/regulated by guard cells

-usually open during day, but can be closed based on conditions

-when open, CO2 diffuses IN, H2O diffuses OUT

Meristematic tissue

responsible for growth of vascular plants

clusters of actively dividing, undifferentiated cells, which produce new cells

apical meristems

produce primary growth – tips ; roots of stems

ex. buds, leaf elongation, etc.

lateral meristems

produce secondary growth

increases diameter of roots 7 stems

primary growth

apical meristem -; primary meristems

1. protoderm – epidermis

2. ground meristem – parenchyma cells of cortex (chloroplasts!) ; pith

3. procambium – differentiate into xylem ; phloem, undiff. = vascular cambium


secondary growth
results from activity of vascular cambium -;divides into xylem ; phloem – single layer of each for each year = rings on trees!
movement of water in plants

water is required for:

1. enzymatic reactions

2. photosynthetic cells must be moist to allow CO2 entry

3. maintains rigidity

water potential

ability of water to move

;described by ; (Psi)

measured in MPA = Pa x 106

influenced by pulling forces of soil, solute, etc.

flows from HIGH (less negative) to LOW(more negative)


driving force behind movement of water

-loss of water from internal atmosphere via stomata

-when open stomata, water pulled up stem, big difference btwn amt of water in leaf vs outside of leaf = strong diffusion of water OUT of leaf

pull of water depends on:

1. sufficient sunlight for transpiration

2. moisture availability in soil

3. cohesion

4. adhesion

matric potential

tendency of water to stick to soil surfaces

dependent on soil texture


the process of turning solar energy into the chemical energy of sugar and other plant molecules

-occurs in chloroplasts in mesophyll

chlorophyll a is directly involved in conversion of solar-;chemical energy

C3 Photosynthesis

1. light-dependent:absorbs sunlight energy, convert to NADPH ; ATP, water is split, release O2 (includes photosystem I ; II, ETC) – carried out in mesophyll

2. light-independent: CO2 converted to sugar – uses ATP ; NADPH (Calvin cycle) – occurs in stroma

C4 photosynthesis

CO2 entering leaf first converted to 4-C sugar before enters Calvin cycle

occurs in bundle-sheath cells


advantageous in hot regions w/ intense sunlight

Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM)

occur in mesophyll cells

open stoma at night to capture CO2, but close while Calivin cycle is occurring

prevalent in desert plants