Since it was first identified in the 80s, Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HIV/AIDS has become a global health problem. The United Nations Development Programme admitted that the disease has “inflicted single greatest reversal in human development (UNAIDS, 2008). Because HIV/AIDS affects the immune system, people afflicted with the disease usually die some time after it has been diagnosed. More than 25 million individuals have died from HIV/AIDS since the 80s (AVERT. 2009).
A UNAIDS report show that 2. 7 million people become afflicted with HIV/AIDS in 2007 while 2 million have succumbed from HIV- related infections (UNAIDS, 2008). By the end of 2007, global statistics reports that the region of Sub-Saharan Africa has the most number of HIV/AIDS inflicted individuals- a staggering 22. 0 million, 1. 9 million of which are newly diagnosed (AVERT, 2009). It also shows that the region accounts for 75 percent of AIDS death in the same year (2008).
Roughly two –thirds of the entire Sub-Saharan African population is living with HIV/AIDS (2008). In South Africa, roughly 5. 7 million of its citizens are living with the disease, the biggest HIV epidemic in the world (2008). Meanwhile, the 26% HIV incidence in Swaziland makes it the “highest prevalence” that is documented in the world (2008). Several factors have been recognized is the transmission of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. These include sexual transmission (heterosexual and homosexual intercourse) and injecting drug use (2008).
Some HIV/AIDS cases in East and southern Africa have been the result of injecting drug use (2008). Next to Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia ranks second, with five million afflicted individuals. 830,000 of which are newly infected (AVERT, 2009). The regions of North America, Western and Central Europe follows with 2 million afflicted individuals, followed by Latin America, Eastern and Central Asia, and Caribbean and Oceania rounding out the rest (2009). A summary of global statistics can be seen below.
Figures also show that out of the 33 million worldwide living with HIV/. ADS in 2007, 30. 8 million are adults and 15. 5 million are women (AVERT, 2009). Children death amounted to 0. 27 million(2009). In the United States, roughly 455, 636 people are living with HIV /AIDS (AVERT, 2009). High prevalence of AIDS is seen in New York (75, 253), California (65, 582), Florida (48, 059), Texas (34, 910), Pennsylvania (19, 236), Georgia (18,011), New Jersey (17, 671), Illinois (17, 075), Maryland (15, 682), and North Carolina (9, 129) (AVERT, 2009).
The least number of HIV/AIDS afflicted states are in North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana and Wyoming (2009). The American territories of American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands have also reported incidence of HIV/AIDS, albeit lower than in the mainland (2009). With regards to USA AIDS statistics by city, statistics show that the city of New York accounts for an estimated one-fifth of cases- with 202,305 accumulated cases (AVERT, 2009).
This is understandable considering that the state of New York ranked first in the highest number of AIDS incidence in the country. Figures also show that in 2007, Miami, New Orleans, Baton Rouge and Washington reported the highest number of new cases (2009). A listing of the top metropolitan areas with the highest prevalence of the include can be seen below: Los Angeles, CA,Miami, FL, San Francisco, CA, Washington, DC-VA-MD-WV, Chicago, IL-IN-WI, Philadelphia, PA-NJ-DE-MD, Houston-Baytown-Sugar Land, TX, Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta, GA and Baltimore-Towson, MD (2009).
With regards to ethnicity, research shows that Black/ African Americans account for the most number of HIV/AIDS cases in the United States with 17, 507 , followed by whites (10,407), Hispanic/Latino (6, 921), Asian (475), American Indian/ Alaska Native (158) and Native Hawaiian / Pacific Islander (76) ((AVERT, 2009). The age group 30-49 also has the most number of HIV diagnoses, accounting for approximately 54% cases and 64% of AIDS diagnoses in the country (AVERT 2009). In addition, the same age group is responsible for 56% of total deaths from AIDS (2009).
There is still no cure for HIV/AIDS although medical breakthroughs have brought in antiretroviral treatments that may help the person in the course of the disease. There are currently more than 20 approved antiretroviral drugs available although some are not licensed in some countries (AVERT, 2009). This suggests that although no cure has yet to be discovered, what is important now is to minimize the number of infected individuals not only in Africa, where millions of people are inflicted with it, but the rest of the world.
The fact that the disease is not just concentrated in one region means that anybody, rich, poor, man, woman, or child may be affected with HIV/AIDS. References AVERT. (2009). United States Statistics by state and city. Retrieved 17 June 2009, from http://www. avert. org/worldstats. htm (2009). Worldwide HIV & AIDS statistics. Retrieved 17 June 2009, from http://www. avert. org/usa-states-cities. htm UNAIDS. (2008). 08 Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Retrieved 17 June 2009, from http://data. unaids. org/pub/GlobalReport/2008/jc1510_2008_global_report_pp29_62_en. pdf