Davidson ENV. 201 Final

What is the order of ecological succession?

  1. Primary Succession
  2. Secondary Succession
  • There is also aquatic succession

What is the order in primary succession?

  1. Bare rock
  2. Moses and lichens grow
  3. Soil develops and grasses begin to grow
  4. Soil thickens and smaller shrubs grow
  5. Trees start to grow

What is the order of secondary succession?

  1. Fire or other disaster
  2. Annual plants
  3. Grasses and perennials
  4. Grasses, shrubs, pines, young oaks, hickorys
  5. Mature oak and hickory forest

What is the order of acquatic succession?

  1. Open source of water (Deep)
  2. Source of water shrinks as things accumulate on the bottom
  3. All water is gone and replaced by fertile soil
  4. Plants and animals move in

What is a dipole moment and why is it important?
It is an uneven sharing of electrons. In order for a bond to absorb radiation, it must have a dipole moment.
What is electronegativity?
How much an element is attracted to electrons.
What is always produced from combustion reactions that involve carbon?
What is “Paleoclimatology”?
The study of the climate of past ages
What are ice ages?
Periods of time when vast ice sheets covered the continents
What are the two periods of an iceage called?
Glacial and interglacial
What are climate proxies?
Ways to determine past climates without being there.
What are the types of climate proxies? (8)

  1. Ice Cores
  2. Fossil Records
  3. Soil Cores
  4. Corals
  5. Historical Records
  6. Tree Cores-Dendrochronology
  7. Sedimentary
  8. Glaciers

What information do we get from ice cores and why do we use them?

  1. Gas trapped in ice gives us the CO2 levels
  2. Oxygen Isotopes in the H20 (O16+018)
  3. Salts
  4. Easily dated by counting Firn Rings (But a pretty expensive date) 
  5. Can contain volcanin ash layers

What is Firning?
The process by which snow becomes ice over the process of a year
What do fossil records tell us?

  1. Pollen records
  2. Micro Fossils
      • Diatoms

What do tree cores (Dendrochronology) tell us and why do we use them?

  1. Tell us annual growth differences
  2. Tells us about disasters that may have happened
  3. We can go back as far as 20,000 years by linking dead trees

What are the effects of anthropogenic global climate change?

  1. Large rates of spp migration because of glacial retreats
  2. CO2 causes ocean acidification and can chang the carbon to nitrogen ration on plant tissues which effects herbivores

What is the description of Sustainable Agriculture?

  • Produce long-term with levels of productivity relatively equal
  • Produce long-term without reducing long-term productivity
  • Sustain human population and culture

What are some ways to maintain agricultural availability?

  • Nutrient-cycling and availability
  • Elimanate Monocultures
  • Rotating crops
  • Maintain soil
  • Maintain favorable ration of energy per calorie in food produced relative to the energy required to produce that calorie of food
  • Pest control

What are strategies to maintain nutrient-cycling and availability?

  • Minimize crops that tend to deplete soils of nutrients
  • Concentrate on crops with most of their biomass useable as food
  • Maintain pH closer to neutral lime

Why should we eliminate monocultures?

  • Strip some nutrients from the system
  • Reduce ability of the soil to maintain the crops
  • Susceptible to pathogen and to pests

What are some ways to prevent erosion?

  • Reduce tilling
  • Increase organic matter (Organic matter holds onto water very well)
  • Limit irrigation to prevent soil salinization

How to maintain   favorable ratio of energy per calorie in food produced relative to the energy required to produce that calorie of food?





  • Lower trophic level
  • Consumers that have high trophic efficiencies

What are the 6 approaches to increasing sustainability in farming?

  • Match crops to environment
  • Intercropping
  • Arboriculture
  • Permaculture- Perennial crops
  • Decrease reliance on synthetic fertilizer
  • Integrated pest management

Define Energy
The capacity to do work
Define work
The exertion of force to overcome resistance
Define Heat
The movement of molecules
Define temperature
Measure of molecular motio
Define calorie
Amount of heat necessary to raise one g of H2O by 1 degree celsius
Define Joule
The energy required to raise 1 Kg 10cm against gravity
What is the First Law of Thermodynamics?
Conservation of energy, it can be converted
What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics?
The entropy of the universe always increases in the course of every spontaneous change
Exothermic vs. Endothermic
Exothermic gives off heat, endothermic requires heat
What fuels combust?

  • Oil
  • Coal
  • Natural Gas
  • Wood
  • Food 
  • Biomass
  • Peat

How is energy transformed?
Combustion to heat, heat to work (Steam engines, power pumps, mill looms, trains)
How do powerplants work?

  1. Burn Fuel to produce heat
  2. Boil H2O under high pressure
  3. Hot, high pressure vapor spins the fins of turbines
  4. Gas expands and cools
  5. Fins of turbine spin –> Coneced to coil of wire –> Rotates in magnetic field –> Create electric current
  6. H2O vapor cooled and returned

What are the stages of energy?

  1. (Sun) Potential energy (Increase in Entropy)
  2. (Burner) Heat energy (Decrease in entropy)
  3. (Spinning turbine) Mechanical energy
  4. (Generator) Electrical energy

What are the types of pest managements?

  • Pesticides (includes herbicides, insecticides and fungicides)
  • Natural predators/parasitoids
  • Species diversity- (Intercropping, crop rotation, co-planting)
  • Integrated pest managements 
  • Traditional Plant Breeding

What are the methods of integrated pest management?

  • Use sustainable practices and use pesticides only as a last resort
  • Avoid broad spectrum pesticieds
  • Make sure timing and dosage is right
  • Use pesticides that have short half lives and are not subject to bioaccumulation

What is electrochemistry?
Electrical energy from chemical rxns
What is a battery?
A system for direct conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy
What are galvanic cells and how do they acquire energy?
Types of batteries that rely on spontaneous chemical reactions. Delta G<0
When is a spontaneous chemical reaction likely?
When entropy is increasing and is exothermic
What is an electrolytic cell and how does it acquire energy?
Type of battery, non spontaneous chemical reactions. Delta G>0
What are factors in the flow of electrons?

  • Electrochemical potential energy
  • Electronegativity
  • Oxidations-Reactant loses electrons
  • Reduction-Reactant gains electrons