These upgrades in food production had political, social and economic effects on societies and regions. The Neolithic Revolution fundamentally changed the way people lived by shifting from food-gathering to agriculture to permanent settlements, the establishment of social classes, and the eventual rise of violations.
The Agricultural Revolution was a period of agricultural development between the 18th Century and the end Of the 1 9th century, which saw a massive and rapid increase in agricultural productivity and vast improvements in farm technology. The Neolithic Revolution was one of the first revolutions in food production of humankind. According to “Civilization: Past and Present’, by T. Walter Walking, Paleolithic humans could not control their food supply and they relied on foraging hunting, fishing and trapping, basically dependent on the natural food supply their environment o prevent starvation.
The Neolithic Revolution caused a change in human history because humans, who were traditionally hunter-gathers because farmers and herdsman, advancing from food-extraction to food-producing economy, cultivating edible plants, and breeding animals. Mankind no longer needed to depended on the natural resources on the wild but they could now grow crops from the earth. In the comic “Mysteries of Catalogue,”by the Science Museum of Minnesota, Neolithic humans used new technology the plow and the wheel to plant and harvest crops were they resided in a immunity instead of migrating to hunt and gather.
They domesticated plants by using seed selection and selective breeding-?controlling the reproduction of animals to select desirable characteristics. Humans began enjoying healthy regular meals, developing villages, erecting permanent structures, formation of complex societies and reshaping environment. The main disadvantages in the food-gathering society of the Paleolithic Age were that they were unable to maintain surpluses and have a growth in the population. The agriculture and pastoralist of the Neolithic Time, even in airily primitive forms, provided accumulation of surpluses and a growth in population.
This population growth paved the way for the ability to stored food and the maintenance of non-food producers. The formation of the societies in the Neolithic Age was the foundation of the River Valley civilizations. As seen in ‘the Visual Dictionary of Ancient Civilizations” pictographic depictions by Darling Kindnesses one such River Valley civilization affected by the Neolithic Way was Ancient Mesopotamia. The development of a stable food supply called for different jobs/job specialization which could include stirring milk, fleece making etc.
Since they were continuously working on these jobs the Sumerians developed the wheel. All of these activities were recorded on the daily rations clay tablets depicted by pictographs. Since Ancient Mesopotamia geographical location near the Tigris and Euphrates which plagued the civilization with unpredictable flooding and this resulted in the development of technologies for altering natural environment such as irrigation canals, flood control. The complexity of the effects of the food- producing economy enhanced over time.
People began to settle down and with this a government was developed to maintain law and order. The people in Egypt had a Pharaoh, who ruled and was considered as a god, and in Ancient Chinese civilizations there was the Emperor who was appointed by the Mandate of Heaven. Without the Neolithic Revolution the human race would not have advanced further than living in caves and continuing their hunting and gathering days. Another revolution that impacted Western civilization was the Agrarian (Agricultural) Revolution. According to “A History of the Modern World” by R.
R. Palmer, the English Revolution in 1688 confirmed the ascension of Parliament (the more well-to-do-property-owning class) over the king. For a century and a half, from 18th 1832, the British government was controlled by the landowners (the “squirrelly” or “gentlemen of England. “) and many of these landowners sought to increase their money income. They began experimenting with advanced techniques of cultivation and stock rising. They made more use of fertilizers, mainly animal manure and the introduction of new implements such as a drill seeder and horse-hoe.
New crops were brought in, such as turnips with a more scientific system of crop rotation and they attempted selective breeding order to get larger animals. All of these lead to the investment in the capital and the start of Industrial Revolution. One of the prime changes brought on by the Agrarian Revolution was enclosure, the act by which large tracts of land were fenced in. In the Middle Ages most land was farmed by individual farmers who each had a strip of a large, open field. Because land was used ‘in common’, changing land use was not easily implemented, and changes in arming practice were slow to be implemented.
As it is written in the “Enclosure Acts: Great Britain (1700-1801 Y’ on the World History on File, Facts on File Department. The enclosures regulated by Parliament resulted in less waste of land, reduction in the spread of animal diseases, eviction of some farmers and the inability of poor farmers to compete with owners of large areas of land. Between 1730 and 1820 there were an astonishing total of over 3500 individual acts of Parliament authorizing enclosure of agricultural land. This resulted in almost all of the Midlands and the north being enclosed.
Though often this enclosure created hardship for peasant farmers, the landowners were able to implement new farming practices such as regulated stock breeding, controlled crop rotation, and more efficient production on marginal farmland. But the social cost of these changes was immense, as many poor farm laborers were rendered redundant, poor farmers lost their land, and the rural working classes were often forced to move to industrial urban areas to find work. Equally important were the introduction of new farm machinery, such as the wheeled seed drill, which mechanized the rotational practice of scattering seeds by hand.
Some other inventions were the tractors, harvesters and mechanical, tools to eradicate weeds between rows of crops, which replaced oxen and human muscle. Iron tools replaced earlier wooden ones – the iron plough was a big advance on the wooden plough, and were so much more efficient that it could be drawn by horses instead of oxen. Factories took over the sugar processing, leading to ever larger manufacturing plants. The trend toward mechanization in agriculture reduced human work in the countryside leading to greater migrations in the ties because family farmers could not compete against the high efficiency of the machines. “Experiencing World History,” By Paul V, Adams. ) Through observation, trial and error, the early humans have figured out many ways to settle on one piece of land and live their lives in peace. Each and every day the humans Were learning something new about planting seeds or creating material to build houses with. Their ability to manipulate and shape nature was growing. The humans began learning to domesticate the animals and plants. The stronger and bigger animals were used for farming activities such s plowing and towing.
The excretions of the animals were used as fertilizer on the plants. Later on the human race also learned to breed animals to their advantage so the everyday life of a Neolithic human would run more smoothly. The humans abandoned their hunting and gathering days for a much more peaceful and safer life. Having taken a huge step towards modern society, the early humans who lived during the Neolithic Revolution were hard at work in domesticating animals, learning new ways to plant vegetables, and how to start a civilization.
The Agrarian (Agricultural) Revolution brought bout machinery to replaced oxen/human muscles; more efficient cultivation of crops; cultivation of wheat and other grain crops was revolutionized; factories took over the processing of some agricultural products/sugar/wheat; an overall reduction of human work in the countryside; greater migration to the cities; corporations had an advantage over family farmers; hat-vesting food became more efficient; some people lost their agricultural jobs; government policies were passed that attempted to protect family farms.
Both these Revolutions contributed to the evolved and continuously growing society we have today.