Diesel production from waste vegetable oil sources

In an increasingly green global economy, the drive to convert waste into usable form has become imperative. Coupled with increasing living costs, it is now high time to adopt alternative methods that will seek to sustainable seek to replace other costly methods currently operating. The concern is increasing worldwide for environmental protection and for the conservation of non- renewable natural resources. Bodiless is a versatile befoul that is renewable, biodegradable, and environmentally beneficial in the sense that combustion ads only boogieing carbon to the atmosphere.It is developed through Trans- stratification.

Defined as a process that converts triglycerides, like vegetable oil, into fatty acid methyl esters, commonly known as bodiless. This paper will focus on the development of bodiless from waste vegetable oil sources as an avenue to reduce the carbon footprint and costs associated with fossil fuels. A literature review was conducted through a structured search of peer- reviewed journals dealing with the phenomenon. According to the Article by Sassafras et al, 2013, bodiless has become one of the most versatile alternative fuel options for diesel engine applications.

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In their research, the authors carried out research on the viability of bodiless production from fish oil, a common commercial restaurant waste in India. Given the large number of fast food restaurants in the Kenya capitals such as Nairobi , Mambas, Sums, Nassau,Thick and others, it is plausible that such a venture is plausible in the country. Instead Of using virgin vegetable oil, waste cooking oil can be used as raw material for bodiless production (Guy, et al. , 2012).

In cost of hotels, restaurants, and in other food industries, the waste cooking oil is either simply discharged into the river or dumped into the land. In spite of this, the waste cooking oil can be used effectively for the bodiless synthesis. Furthermore, this is fostered by the fact that researchers have found out that bodiless production is indeed possible form a variety of oil feed stocks (Guy, et al.

, 201 2;Repeat, TIA, Saba, Shelters, & G. L. Edwina, 2008;Sassafras, Sympathy, & Caravans, 2013;liquid, Ferrous, Duding, Khan, & Islam, 2014;Vaccine, Martinez, & Arc, 2004).Repeat et al, 2008, and Duding, 2014, highlight that the Application of bodiless, as a fuel in transportation vehicles, has nowadays become common in almost all oil importing nations, due to the high oil import bills and uncertainties associated with the imports due to political chaos. Depending upon the availability of domestic products of feed stock material these countries started using bodiless from domestically available or producible vegetable oil.

In this context, many raw materials have been used by different countries, depending upon the availability and economical affordability (Repeat, TIA, Saba, Shelters, & G. . Edwina, 2008). Guy et al.

, 201 2, perform a research of the efficiency fewest cooking oil in Off-road Diesel engines. Their research indeed agrees with that of Sassafras et al, 201 3, stating that a plethora of animal and vegetable fats are indeed suitable for oil production. Some of the feedstock quoted include, soybean, rapeseed , sunflower , palm, coconut oil , rubber seed, waste cooking- oil, waste plastic oil among others. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) how great potential as diesel substitutes, and they are known to be sources of bodiless.However, the authors note that production is not limited to the above materials. Catastrophe, Jakarta, Mamma and Poland trees have also been suitable and feasible feedstock for production of bodiless (Sassafras, Sympathy, & Caravans, 2013). As stated earlier, many scientists have focused towards bodiless production from algae bodiless, waste cooking-oil bodiless, fish-oil bodiless sources. Knapsack’s et al.

, 201 3, in their article ‘Recent Strategy of Bodiless Production from Waste Cooking Oil andProcess Influencing Parameters: A Review state that the main element of environmental sustainability through reuse and recycling presents a concrete idea. To minimize the befoul cost, in recent days waste cooking oil was used as feedstock. The authors state that the process considered highly costly, can now be carried out using catalysts such as acids, base, and lipase. Since lipase catalysts are much expensive, the usage of lipase in bodiless production is limited. In most cases, Noah is used as alkaline catalyst, because of its low cost and higher reaction rate.

Vaccine et al. Studied using various base catalysts for production of alkyl esters and concluded that Noah is the fastest catalysts among the catalysts used (Noah, KOCH, sodium methodize, the potassium methodize). Repeat et al.

Reported that KOCH gives the highest yield for feedstock he had used. Len order to reduce the level of fatty acid content, waste cooking oil is pretreated with acid catalyst to undergo stratification reaction, which also requires high operating conditions (Repeat, TIA, Saba, Shelters, & G. L. Edwina, 2008).

The above limitation identified is drawback n the Bodiless production.Furthermore, this has been worsened by the massive drop in oil prices. Duding et al, 2014, points out that the predicted shortness of conventional fuels and environmental concerns, a search for alternative fuels has gained recent significant attention. Therefore, our research hypothesis is not entirely driven by cost reduction but pollution. Bodiless production is accompanied with a downstream product, glycerin, formed during transmogrification is also important because of its numerous applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical sectors (Guy et al. 01 2; Duding et al. , 2014).

The authors agree that focus on the by-product is essential, since it may actually offset costs related to the production process. Several comprehensive reviews of the existing literature have concluded that bodiless use will generally reduce exhaust emissions of particulate matter, total hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. Duding et al. , 2014, highlights the fact that continuous and large-scale production of bodiless from edible oil has recently been a great concern because they compete with food materials – the food versus fuel dispute.

The Concept of citing the term ‘waste’ before our hypothesis excludes this limitation from our research. The use of non- edible oil for bodiless production compared with edible oil is very significant in developing countries because of the tremendous demand of edible oil as food and they are far too expensive to be used as fuel at present. In overall, the review of the above five articles indeed highlights the essence into our research.

Despite several limitations in terms of demographic data on Kenya restaurants, it highlights a large possibility of bodiless production in a large scale.Various successes in terms of project implementation have been recorded in India and Bangladesh. We believe that the same potential lies with Kenya as one of the fastest growing economies in Kenya.