The article is about drug use in prison where it speaks the improper use of drugs by the prisoners who due to some personal or some other specific reasons take drugs in the prison. This paper highlights the situation of some jails of The States and Germany and through some studies it provides some statistical data of those prisoners who are habitual of taking drugs. It also throws the light upon the wrong uses of syringe but at the same time gives direction to improve the situation of prisoners.
There are many new prisons in the state where since 1988, there are at least 10,000 beds. The prison supporters are not discouraged due to any shortage. Their aim is now to make another prison worth $ 200 million. In this period approximately 32 percent population increased but in the jails it increased up to 172 percent. Between 1989 and 1999, the crime has decreased up to 21 percent but the demand of prisons is increasing. In the same period the police arrests have also decreased up to 13 percent (Roger Lauen and Daniel R. Merkle, 2005).
• Firstly, the jails are full of the failed “war on drugs” and there are numerous passive criminals who face physical violence and mental health problems. • Secondly, prosecutor should focus on crime against people and property as their filings per arrest are just up to 40 percent. • Thirdly, The greater part of drug war defendants are poor and African Americans males have improper number. We need to find out a healthier way to fight with drug use as all racial and income groups are involved in it. • Fourthly, The state legislators are the decision makers.
During 80s and 90s “tough on crime” was a very popular slogan but now some political leaders feel that instead of being “tough on crime” they must concentrate on “smart on crime” and also they must make some proper arrangements for imprisonment. Now their aim is to make people safer instead of capturing them and putting in jails blindly (Roger Lauen and Daniel R. Merkle, 2005). For some years, some local communities and Washington State have decided to take some actions for rationalizing the war on drugs. These proposals will decrease the prison-bed demand without putting the public in danger (Roger Lauen and Daniel R.
Merkle, 2005). • Their idea is to tell legislators to cooperate their substitute to imprisonment and small punishments and put into the job training, intermediary housing and education. • Improvement in the laws for nonviolent criminals demonstrate that the possibility of re-offending is very less and their cost for health care is very big. • Imprisonment and prison release decisions, which are based on type of crime, give the opportunity to evaluate the situation of crime and also the specific treatment of the criminal
According to the editor Michael Ross the drug use and injecting in English and Welsh prisons have become risky as he says that it keeps HIV transmission. Many studies related to injecting drug users demonstrate that many of them will be imprisoned and one third of this group will be injected in prison and among those approximately three quarters will contribute to the same syringes and needles (P Turnbull and GV Stimson, 1994). But the current data does not prove any improvement.
In 1993, in London, misusers of a sample of 507 injecting drug, were interviewed for a study that was being done by the Medical Research Council. Ninety-nine were selected randomly and they had to give answers for the questions related to their prison experiences Seventy-six of them had practiced imprisonment and forty five of them did not receive any kind of treatment, any advice or help for their drug related problem. Injections were accounted by twenty-one and syringes and needles were accounted fourteen and they were shared. That was on a mean of 20.
2 occasions (P Turnbull and GV Stimson, 1994). These calculations are same like previous studies and one cannot find any change in them. A recent study of drug injecting practices in prison was done in 1993-1994 with the recent prisoners. These prisoners were the conventional drug users of opiates and constant users of other combinations of drugs. While in prison they did not stop taking drugs. All 39 from 44 faced removal indication in prison. Many of them had this thinking that drugs are necessary to improve removal indication and insomnia.
Some 20 out of 40 got medication to help them with short-term removal. Many of them were given diazepam. 7 of them were recommended to reduce dosages of opiates. The drug users felt that the doctor’s treatment was more moral than being clinical. 16 injecting drug users did not stop taking drugs. All the syringes and the needles were reused and there was no disposal of used injecting equipment. Of these 9 shared the syringe but they all cleared it at the same time. Still here were not proper things for cleaning these syringes.
Spoons, containers for mixing drugs and cleaning equipments and filters all were shared (P Turnbull and GV Stimson, 1994). In 1999, just about 1. 9 million American adults were in Federal, State and Local jails. This was such a big number, which was like the population of Houston, Texas. Half of the prisoners stated that they used drugs just before the offence for which they were sent to prisons. Approximately 16 percent said that they committed crime to get money to buy drugs. Two-third of the prisoners were already taking drugs before coming to jails.
According to the National Drug Control Policy, treatment in prison can decrease recidivism by approximately 50 percent. The violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement act of 1994 directs the Department of Justice to support the states for providing treatment to the criminals by giving them the facility of funds for the Residential Substance Abuse Treatment (RSAT) program, which encourages residential substance abuse program. To participate in this program there are some criteria: • The criminal participant can participate for 6-12 months. • It focuses on the substance abuse problems.
• This program enhances the participant’s behavioral, vocational and cognitive skills. • The program executes reliable forms of drug and alcohol testing of individuals. It is being observed that in the last twenty years drug users are increasing among prison inmates. In Germany except overcrowding of prisoners, the drug use has become main problem. The drug users who are not stopping to take drugs like iv are having many infectious diseases like HIV and Hepatitis. As needles and syringes are being shared so the kinds of diseases like HIV, HBV are easily transmitted (Dr.
Ingo Ilja Michels and Dr. Heino Stover, 1995). It is assumed that approximately one third of the population is drug user. The number of women drug user is higher than the men drug users. When outside the prison some studies were done then it was found out that 60 % of them had prison experience. According to AMSEL study the time of imprisonment beats the time of treatment. The ministry of health in Germany has identified that though the prisoners are in strict observations still 40% of them take illegal injectable drugs.
Though there are so many differences from urban to rural jails, from north to south jails, still drugs are easily available everywhere. DEUTSCHE AIDS HILFE’s study indicates that drugs can be received with out having any problems (Dr. Ingo Ilja Michels and Dr. Heino Stover, 1995). There are some driving forces, which are responsible for the prisoners to take drugs in the prison (Tom Carnwath and Durham, 2003). • In first two weeks there is high suicidal rate • Physical misusers are common.
• There is a question if withdrawal is also responsible for the prisoners to take drugs. • Increased punishment • It can also be to raise standards. The Health care service is also aware of everything. There is a strong need of giving the education to the prisoners about drugs and AIDS. It also increases the opportunities for the prisoners to help them with rug problems. References: Carnwath, Tom and Durham, 2003, Drug Use and Prison, http://www. dh. gov. uk/prod_consum_dh/idcplg? IdcService=GET_FILE&dID=7836&Rendition=Web Drug Use Prison,http://www.
ncjrs. gov/pdffiles1/jr000244e. pdf. Drug Use Trends, 2002, http://www. whitehousedrugpolicy. gov/publications/factsht/druguse/ Lauen, Roger and Merkle, Deniel R. , 2005, Prison not best way to deal with drug use, http://seattlepi. nwsource. com/opinion/217264_prison24. html Michels, Ingo Iilja and Stover, Heino, 1995, The Prevention on Infectious Diseases in Prison, http://www. drugtext. org/library/articles/florenz. html Turnbull, P and Stimson, G V, 1994, Drug Use in Prison, http://www. bmj. com/cgi/content/full/308/6945/1716