dynamic earth!!!!

 exhumation
 the process involving uplife and erosion that returns deeply buried rocks to the surface
 foliation 
 layering formed as a consequence of the alighment of mineral grains, or of compositional banding in a metamorphic rock
 gneiss
 a compositionally banded metamorphic rock typically composed of alternating dark and light colored layers
 marble
 a metamorphic rock composed of calcite and transformed from a protolith of limestone
 metamorphic grade
 The intensity or rank of metamorphism, measured by the amount or degree of difference between the original parent rock and the metamorphic rock. It indicates in a general way the pressure-temperature environment or facies in which the metamorphism took place
 metamorphic rock
 rock that forms when existing rock changes into new rock as a result of an increase in pressure and temperature and or shearing under elebated termperature-metmorphism occurs without the rock first becoming a melt or a sediment 
 metamorphism 
 the process by which one kind of rock transforms into a different kind of rock
 protolith 
 the original from which a metamorphic rock formed
 schist 
 a medium to coarse grained metamorphic rock that possesses schistosity 
 slate
 fine grained, low grade metamorphic rock formed by metamophism of shale
 aftershock 
 the series of smaller earthquakes that follow a major earthquake
 displacement slip
 the amount of movement or slip across a fault plane
 earthquake
 a vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional slifing of rock in the earth
 epicenter
 the point on the surgace of the earth directly aboe the focus of an earthquake
 fault
 a fracture on which one body of rock slides past another
 fault scarp
 a smell step in the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other
 friction 
 resistance to sliding on a surface
 hypocenter
 the point of an earthquak beneath the surface
 intensity 
 a measure of the relative size of an earthquake at a location, as determined by examining the amount of damage caused
 magnitude
 the size of the earthquake
 recurrence interval 
 the average time between successive geologic events
 seismograph
 the record of an earthquake
 p-wavescompression
 compressional seismic waves that move through the body of the earth
 s-waves shear
 seismic shear waves that pass through the body of the earth
 stick-slip 
 a fault in which one block slides horizontally past another so there is no realtive vertical motion
 stress
 the push, pull, or shear that a material feels when subejcted to a force
 surface waves
 seismic waves that travel along the earth’s surface
 tsunami 
 a large wave along the sea surface triggered by an earthquak or large submarine slump
 anticline
 a fold with an arch-like shape in which the limbs dip away from the hinge
 brittle 
 the cracking and fracturing of a material subjected to stress
 deformation 
 a change in the shampe, position, or orientation of a material by bending, breaking, or flowing
 dip
 a fault in which sliding occurs up or down the slope 
 ductile 
 the bending and flowing of a material without cracking and breaking subjected to stress
 footwall 
 he rocks on the lower side of an inclined fault plane
 hanging wall 
 the rock or sediment above an inclined fault plane
 isostasy 
 the condition that exists when the buotancy force pushing lithosphere up equals the gravitational force pulling lithosphere down
 joint 
 naturally formed cracks in rocks
 syncline   
 a trough shaped fold whose limbs dip toward the hinge
 normal fault  
 a fauly in which the hanging wall block moves down the slope of the fault
 reverse fault 
 a steeply dipping fault on which the hanging wall block slides up
 transform fault
a fault marking a transform plate boundary-along mid ocean ridges, are actively slipping segment of a fracture zone between two ridge segments
 uplift
 Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic
 abyssal plane 
 a broad relatively flat region of ocean that lies at least 4.

5 km below sea level

 active margin 
 a continental margine that coincides with a plate boundary
 bathymetry 
 variation in depth 
 continental shelf 
 a broad, shallowly submerged fringe of a continent -the widest continental shelves occur over passive margins
 coriolis effect 
 the deflection of objectsm winds, and currents on the surface of the earth owing to the planet’s rotation 
 gyre 
 a large circular flow pattern of ocean surface currents 
 passive continental margin 
 a continental margin that is not a plate boundary 
 thermohaline circulation 
 the rising and sinking of water driven by contrasts in water ensity, which is due in turn to differences in temp and salinity-circulation involved both surface and deep water currents
 andiabatic cooling 
 the process of reducing heat through a change in air pressure caused by volume expansion
 adiabatic heating
  A change in the temperature of a material without addition of heat that happens when the pressure of a gas is increased.
 air
 the mixture of gases that make up the earth’s atmosphere
 air pressure 
 the push that air exerts on its surroundings
 atmosphere
 a layer of gases that surrounds a planet
 climate
 the average weather conditions along with the range of conditions of a region over a year
 cloud 
 a mist of tiny water droplets in the sky
 convergence zone
 a place where two surface air flows meet so that air has to rise
 divergence zone 
 a place where sinking air separates into two flows that move in opposite directions
 dewpoint temperature 
 the temp at which air becomes satuared so that dew can form 
 el nino 
 the flow of warm water eastward form the pacific ocean that reverses the upselling of cold water along the western coast of south america and causes significant global changes in weather patterns
 hadley cell 
 the name given to the low altitude convection cells in the atmosphere
 insolation 
 exposure to the sun’s rays
 jet stream 
 a fast moving current of air that flowa at high elevation 
 mesosphere 
 the cooler layer of atmosphere overlying the stratosphere
 ozone
o3-protects-absorbs ultraviolet
 stratosphere 
 the stable stratified layer of atmosphere directly above the troposphere
 thermosphere 
 the outermost layer of the atmopshere conaining very little gas
 trade winds
 a wind blowing steadily toward the equator from the northeast in the northern hemisphere or the southeast in the southern hemisphere, esp. at sea
 troposphere
 the lowest layer of the atmosphere where air undergoes convection and where most wind and clouds develop
 weather 
 local scale conditions as defined by temperature air pressure relative humidity and wind speed
 wind
 
 typical p wave velocities in crust
 1,000km / 1 min
 typical s wave velocity in crust
 400 km / 1 min
 major ions in sea water
 magnesiumcalicumpotassium 
 salinity of ocean water
-more saline as temp increases
 typical depth of abyssal plains
 4.5 km
 average insolation
 depends on the angle at which sunbeams strike the earth-poles are cooler