dynamic earth!!!!




the process involving uplife and erosion that returns deeply buried rocks to the surface




layering formed as a consequence of the alighment of mineral grains, or of compositional banding in a metamorphic rock




a compositionally banded metamorphic rock typically composed of alternating dark and light colored layers




a metamorphic rock composed of calcite and transformed from a protolith of limestone


metamorphic grade


The intensity or rank of metamorphism, measured by the amount or degree of difference between the original parent rock and the metamorphic rock. It indicates in a general way the pressure-temperature environment or facies in which the metamorphism took place


metamorphic rock


rock that forms when existing rock changes into new rock as a result of an increase in pressure and temperature and or shearing under elebated termperature

-metmorphism occurs without the rock first becoming a melt or a sediment 




the process by which one kind of rock transforms into a different kind of rock




the original from which a metamorphic rock formed




a medium to coarse grained metamorphic rock that possesses schistosity 




fine grained, low grade metamorphic rock formed by metamophism of shale




the series of smaller earthquakes that follow a major earthquake


displacement slip


the amount of movement or slip across a fault plane




a vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional slifing of rock in the earth




the point on the surgace of the earth directly aboe the focus of an earthquake




a fracture on which one body of rock slides past another


fault scarp


a smell step in the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other




resistance to sliding on a surface




the point of an earthquak beneath the surface




a measure of the relative size of an earthquake at a location, as determined by examining the amount of damage caused




the size of the earthquake


recurrence interval 


the average time between successive geologic events




the record of an earthquake





compressional seismic waves that move through the body of the earth





seismic shear waves that pass through the body of the earth




a fault in which one block slides horizontally past another so there is no realtive vertical motion




the push, pull, or shear that a material feels when subejcted to a force


surface waves


seismic waves that travel along the earth’s surface




a large wave along the sea surface triggered by an earthquak or large submarine slump




a fold with an arch-like shape in which the limbs dip away from the hinge




the cracking and fracturing of a material subjected to stress




a change in the shampe, position, or orientation of a material by bending, breaking, or flowing




a fault in which sliding occurs up or down the slope 




the bending and flowing of a material without cracking and breaking subjected to stress




he rocks on the lower side of an inclined fault plane


hanging wall 


the rock or sediment above an inclined fault plane




the condition that exists when the buotancy force pushing lithosphere up equals the gravitational force pulling lithosphere down




naturally formed cracks in rocks




a trough shaped fold whose limbs dip toward the hinge


normal fault 



a fauly in which the hanging wall block moves down the slope of the fault


reverse fault 


a steeply dipping fault on which the hanging wall block slides up


transform fault

a fault marking a transform plate boundary

-along mid ocean ridges, are actively slipping segment of a fracture zone between two ridge segments




Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic


abyssal plane 


a broad relatively flat region of ocean that lies at least 4.5 km below sea level


active margin 


a continental margine that coincides with a plate boundary




variation in depth 


continental shelf 


a broad, shallowly submerged fringe of a continent 

-the widest continental shelves occur over passive margins


coriolis effect 


the deflection of objectsm winds, and currents on the surface of the earth owing to the planet’s rotation 




a large circular flow pattern of ocean surface currents 


passive continental margin 


a continental margin that is not a plate boundary 


thermohaline circulation 


the rising and sinking of water driven by contrasts in water ensity, which is due in turn to differences in temp and salinity

-circulation involved both surface and deep water currents


andiabatic cooling 


the process of reducing heat through a change in air pressure caused by volume expansion


adiabatic heating


 A change in the temperature of a material without addition of heat that happens when the pressure of a gas is increased.




the mixture of gases that make up the earth’s atmosphere


air pressure 


the push that air exerts on its surroundings




a layer of gases that surrounds a planet




the average weather conditions along with the range of conditions of a region over a year




a mist of tiny water droplets in the sky


convergence zone


a place where two surface air flows meet so that air has to rise


divergence zone 


a place where sinking air separates into two flows that move in opposite directions


dewpoint temperature 


the temp at which air becomes satuared so that dew can form 


el nino 


the flow of warm water eastward form the pacific ocean that reverses the upselling of cold water along the western coast of south america and causes significant global changes in weather patterns


hadley cell 


the name given to the low altitude convection cells in the atmosphere




exposure to the sun’s rays


jet stream 


a fast moving current of air that flowa at high elevation 




the cooler layer of atmosphere overlying the stratosphere





-absorbs ultraviolet




the stable stratified layer of atmosphere directly above the troposphere




the outermost layer of the atmopshere conaining very little gas


trade winds


a wind blowing steadily toward the equator from the northeast in the northern hemisphere or the southeast in the southern hemisphere, esp. at sea




the lowest layer of the atmosphere where air undergoes convection and where most wind and clouds develop




local scale conditions as defined by temperature air pressure relative humidity and wind speed




natural movement of the air, esp. in the form of a current of air blowing from a particular direction.


typical p wave velocities in crust


1,000km / 1 min


typical s wave velocity in crust


400 km / 1 min


major ions in sea water







salinity of ocean water

-more saline as temp increases


typical depth of abyssal plains


4.5 km


average insolation


depends on the angle at which sunbeams strike the earth

-poles are cooler