Earth’s Resources

Chapter 4, Section 1 



what is a nonrenewable resource

give one example


takes million of years to form and accumulate

ex: coal, oil, natural gas

fossil fuel

give examples

any hydrocarbon that may be used as a source of energy

ex: coal, oil, natural gas

What is a renewable resource?

Give examples

can be replinished over fairly short time

ex: plants and animals

how does coal form?


when heat and pressure transform plant material over millions of years
what are the four stages of coal development?

1. peat-partially decayed plant material that sometimes looks like soil.

2.  peat becomes lignite

3. continued heat and pressure transforms lignite into bituminous coal (soft coal)

4.  metamorphic rock called anthracite

what is the problem with coal?

surface minig for coal scars the land, underground mining is dangerous, burning coal can create air pollution problems in the form of sulfur oxide which can cause acid precipitation

______________ and ______________ form from the remains of plants and animals that were buried in ancient seas.
petroleum (oil) and natural gas
what is an oil trap?

a geologic structure that allows large amounts of liquid to accumulate

example would be an anticline

Some experts believe that fuels dervied from ____ ______ and ____ ______ could become good substitutes for the dwindling petroleum supplies.
tar sands and oil shales
tar sands

mixture of bitumen, water, clay, and sand

oil shale

rock containing mixtures of hydrocarbons called kerogen

what are mineral resources?

deposits of useful minerals that can be extracted

mineral reserves are….
deposits from which minerals can be extracted profitably
a useful metallic mineral that can be mined as a profit
Some of the most important mineral deposits form through __________ processes and __________ solutions.



As a large body of magma cools, heavy minerals crystallize early and settle to the bottom of the magma chamber.; This is how _____deposits form. An mineral example would be…..

magma, chromite or platinum
How do hydrothermal deposits form?
from hot, metal-rich fluids that are left during the late stages of the movement and cooling of the magma. As magma cools, and becomes solid , liquids and various metal ions collect near top of magma chamber.
Placer deposits are formed when…..
eroded, heavy minerals settle quickly from moving water while less dense particles remain suspended and continue to move.


_________ is the best known placer deposit.

Examples of nonmetallic minerals include…
fluorite and limestone
Nonmetallic resources are divided into two broad groups: _________ materials and ______________materials.
building, industrial

T or F? Nonmetallic mineral resources are used as a source of energy.


Chaper 4, Section 2


List some alternative energy sources:

solar, nuclear, wind, hydroelectric power, geothermal, tidal
Solar energy is…..
the direct use of the sun’s rays to supply heat or electricity.
What are two advantages of solar energy?
the ;fuel; is free, it’s non-polluting
The fuel for nuclear plants comes from radioactive materials that release energy through _______ __________.
nuclear fission
In nuclear fission the nuclei of;heavy atoms such as uranium-235 are bombarded with _________.; The uranium nuclei then split into smaller nuclei and emit ________ and ______ energy.
neutrons, neutrons, heat
At a nuclear power plant, a nuclear chain reaction releases heat, which drives steam turbines that turn ________ __________.
electrical generators
Some experts estimate that in the next 50 to 60 years, ______ power could meet b/w 5 to 10% of the country’s demand for electricity.

What is hydroelectric power?

the power that falling water generates
The water held in a ____1_____ behind a __2___ is a form of stored energy that can be released through the;___2__ to produce electric power.

1. reservoir

2. dam

Geothermal energy is harnessed by…
tapping natural underground reservoirs of steam and hot water.
Hot water is used directly for ________ and to turn __________ to generate electric power. (in relation to geothermal energy)
heating, turbines
Geothermal power is clean but not ________.

Tidal power is harnessed by constructing a ___1__ across the mouth of a __2____ or _____3___ in coastal areas with a large tidal range. The strong in and out flow that results drives ____4___ and electric _____5______.


2. bay

3. estuary

4. turbines

5. generators

Chapter 4, Section 3



Each day people use fresh water for ________, __________, ;_________, and ________ ______.

cooking, bathing, growing food, drinking
What are the two types of water pollution?
Point source pollution and nonpoint source pollution

What is point source pollution?

Give an example


pollution that comes from a known and specific location

Ex: factory pipes, sewer pipes

What is nonpoint source pollution?


pollution that does not have a specific point of origin


________ often carries nonpoint source pollution.


What is runoff?
the water that flows over the land rather than seeping into the ground
The ________ composition of the atmosphere helps maintain life on Earth.
Earth’s atmosphere is a blanket of…… (4 answers)
nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, other gases
What does the layer of protective ozone high in the air protect Earth from?
sun’s UV radiation
What are gases that help maintain the warm temperatures near the surface of the Earth called? What are some examples?
greenhouse gases; carbon dioxide, methane,
_______ _________ combustion is the major source of air pollution.
Fossil fuel
Power plants release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.; These pollutants combine with water vapor in the air to create _____ ____________.
acid precipitation
An increase in carbon dioxide has altered the carbon cycle and conributed to the unnatural warming of the lower atmosphere which is known as __________ ____________.
gloabl warming
Global warming could cause the melting of glaciers which would then contribute to _______________ and _______________.
a rise in sea level, in the flooding of coastal areas

Earth’s land provides ______ and forests, as well as mineral and _______ resources.

soil, energy
Mining can cause _____ ______, create _________, tear up the Earth’s surface, and destroy _________.
soil erosion, pollution, vegetation
Heavy pumping for irrigation of dry areas(related to agriculture);is ________ the _____________.
depleting, groundwater
Overtime, irrigation can cause ______________, or the build-up of salts in soil.
What is the danger related to landfills?
they can leak harmful wastes that get into soil and underground water

Chapter 4, Section 4





the careful use of resources
Starting in the ______’s, the federal government passed several laws to prevent or decrease pollution and protect resources.
Clean Water Act (CWA)

  • requires industries to reduce or elminate point source pollution into surface waters
  • led to huge increase in the number of sewage treatment plants


Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974

  • helped protect drinking resources
  • set maximum containment levels for a number of pollutants that could harm the health of people



In 1970, Congress passed the _____ ____ Act, the nation’s most important air pollution law.
Clean Air Act
The Clean Air Act established National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six ;criteria; pollutants known to cause health problems. What are these 6 criteria?

  1. carbon monoxide
  2. ozone
  3. lead
  4. sulfur dioxide
  5. nitrogen oxides
  6. particulates (fine particles)

Increased use of clean, alternate energy sources such as _____, ______, and ___________ power, can also help clean the air.
solar, wind, hydrolelectric

Protecting ___1___ resources involves preventing pollution and managing ___1___ resources wisely

Contour plowing
famers plow across the contour of hillsides, this decreases water runoff that washes away topsoil
Strip cropping
crops with different nutrient requirements are placed in adjacent rows, helps preserve the fertility of soil
selective cutting

only some trees in a forest are cut, this practice preserves topsoil as well as the forest habitat

clear cutting
removing whole forest areas
partly decomposed organic material that is used as;fertilizer
The ____1_____ ____1________ and __1_______ Act if 1976 has decreased the illegal and unsafe dumping of hazardous waste.; The law requires companies to __2___, ____2____, and ___2_____ of hazardous waste according to strict guidelines.

  1. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
  2. store, transport, dispose

The 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) mandates…….
the cleaning up of abandoned hazardous waste sites that are a danger to the public or the environment
the collecting and processing of used items so they can be made into new products

  • All the charts throughout Chapter 4
  • Safety Rules and Symbols
  • Pages 85, 338, 573