EAYH 1

Environmental Risk Transition
-changes in environmental risks that happen as undeveloped regions of the world evolve-prior to this this is poor air,food and water quality-results in increase of chronic conditions
Health
-being sound in body, mind or spirit-not just the absence of disease
Life Quality
-physical status and functional ability-psychological status and well-being-social interactions-economic and vocational factor-religious and spiritual status
Health Status
-Mortality-Morbidity-Life expectancy-Functional Status and Capacity-Quality of life
Basic Environmental Requirements for Health
-clean air-safe and sufficient water-safe and adequate food supply-safe and peaceful settlements-stable global environment
Environment
-the circumstances, objects, or conditions by which one is surrounded
Environment (more technical)
complex of climatic, edaphic (soil-based) and biotic factors that act upon an organism or an ecological community
Environment (Public Health Definition)
– all which is external to the individual host.

It can be divided into physical, biological, social and cultural factors which influence health status in populations

Disease
-trouble or condition of the living animal or plant body of one of its parts that impairs the performance of a vital function; morbidity
Contributors to the “Environment” (6)
-Chemical-Biological-Physical-Social-Cultural-Built-Natural
Environmental Epidemiology
-study of patterns of illness amount humans and the factors that might create these patters (exposure to environmental agents and development of disease)
Environmental Toxicology
-mechanisms between exposure and development of disease-understanding toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of environmental chemicals
Environmental Justice (3 aspects)
-Equal Protection-Equal Access-Fair treatment and meaningful involvement of people-e.g. Baltimore’s Wagner’s Point
Executive Oder 12898 (1994)
-created to address Environmental Justice in minority and low income populations
Health Improvements in 20th Century
-Water, food, milk sanitation-Reduced physical crowding-Improved nutrition-Central heating + cleaner fuel-Chlorination of water-Removal of lead from gasoline
Lead Paint
-banned in 1977-Still exist
Arsenic in Groundwater
– In Bengaladesh and West Bengal-causes lung/live/bladder cancer and skin lesions
Toxicokinetics
what the body does to the agent(I.E. absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, storage)
Toxicodynamics
-what the agent does to the body(i.

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e. the molecular, biochemical, cellular and organ changes that occur)

Risk Assessment
– the determination of the probability that an adverse effect will result from the defined exposure This includes: +hazard identification+exposure assessment+risk characterization
Risk Management
-the process of weighing policy alternatives and selecting the most appropriate regulatory actions based on the results of risk assessment
Clinical Intervention Model
-prevent diseases from becoming death
Public Health Intervention Model
-Prevent public + environment form causing disease
Environmental Stewardship Model
-Prevent public from harming environment
The Three P’s (Principle Determinants of Health Worldwide)
-Population-Pollution-Poverty
Environmental Impact Model
I = P x A xTI = environmental impactp = populationa = affluencet = technology
Types of Waste (5)
– Municipal Solid Waste- Industrial Waste- Medical Waste- Radioactive Waste- Hazardous Waste
Characteristics of Hazardous Waste
– Ignitability- Corrosivity- Reactivity-Toxicity
Hazardous Waste Wake-up Calls (Superfund)
-Love Canal-Valley of the Drums-Times Beach-Libby, Montana
RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act)
– 1976- defined hairdos waste- instituted “manifest system” for tracking – set standards for hazardous waste facilities and issued operating licenses
CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act)
(1980)- Established a national priority list for expenditure of superfund cleanup dollars
Brownfield
– land previously used from industrial purposes of certain commercial uses. The land may be contaminated by low concentrations of hazardous waste or pollution.
CAFOS
-Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations-Factory Farms-Produce large amounts of waste – lagoon-Nitrogen and phosphorus-Contaminate groundwater and drinking wells-ODOR POLLUTION
Exposure
– when an agent enters the body- can be acute or chonic- can occur indoors or outdoors- by various vectors (routes)exposure =intensity x frequency x duration-often is related unequal protection
Exposure Assessment
– qualification of the human engagement with environmental contaminants and health problems
Health Assessment in the contact of Environmental Exposure
– the quantification of health effects that may be related to specific exposures
Epidemiology
– study of patterns of illness amount human populations-uses math and statics to make deductions -uses disease clusters
Incidence
– occurrence of new disease of mortality within a defined period of observation
Prevalence
– a measure of disease frequency and refers to existing cases of diseases or deaths
Point Prevalence
– all cases of a disease that exist at a particular point in time relative to a specific population from which cases are derived
Odds Ratio
– measure of association for case-control studies-the odd in favor of exposure among the disease group (cases) to the ratio in favor of exposure among the no-disease group (control)
Relative Risk
– the ratio of the incidence rate of a disease or health outcome in an exposed group to the incidence rate of the disease or condition in a non-exposed group
Casuality
– causal association must exist between an agent factor and disease in the host for there to be casusality
Factors that make disease hard to identify (6)
– latency- multi-factorial etiology- disease non-specificity- individual characteristics- changed in response with chaining does- mixed exposures
Biomarkers
– chemical, molecular, biochemical or cellular alterations that are measurable in biological media such as human tissues, cells or fluids
Common Law
Judge made law
Statutory Law
– written law
Federalism
– state, local and national governments
Environmental Law
-Laws that protect nature and ecology, public health and welfare
Rulemaking
agency decisions that affect groups of people, especially the regulated community
Adjudication
– a decision about a particular claim by a particular entity
The Benzene Decision
-Risk Assessment = chosen methodology for environmental standard setting
Industrial Union Dep’t, AFL-CIO v.

American Petroleum Institute, 448 U.S. 607 (1980)

– Agency does not need scientific certainty to regulated if at the frontiers of scientific knowledge
Risk Assessment Process (4 steps)
-Hazard Identification- Dose/Response Assessment-Exposure Assessment- Risk Characterization
Biomonitoring
the utilization of biomarkers in the measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites in biological materials
Patterns of Exposure (5)
-Continuous-Intermittent-Cyclic-Random-Concentrated
Water Improvements
-Filtration and Chlorination-Typhoid and Cholera