Ecology Chapters 1 and 2

The scientific study of how organisms affect and are affected by other organisms and their environment
Controlled Experiment
An experimental group is compared to a control group
Environmental Science
An interdisciplinary field that incorporates concepts from the natural sciences and the social sciences.
What are the eight ecological maxims?
1. You can never do just one thing.

2. Everything goes somewhere.3.

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No population can increase in size forever.4. There is no free lunch.5. Evolution matters.6.

Time matters.7. Space matters.8.

Life would be impossible without species interactions.

What are the eight ecological maxims?
1. You can never do just one thing.2.

Everything goes somewhere.3. No population can increase in size forever.4. There is no free lunch.5. Evolution matters.6.

Time matters.7. Space matters.8. Life would be impossible without species interactions.

a group of individuals or a single species that live in a particular area and interact with one another
an association of interacting populations of different species that live in the same area, can cover large or small areas
a community of organisms plus the physical environment in which they live
areas that vary substantially from one place to another, typically including multiple ecosystems
consists of all living organisms on Earth plus the environments in which they live
1. a change in the genetic characteristics of a population over time2. the descent with modification
a characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive or reproduce within its environment
Producer, Primary Producer, or Autotroph
an organism that can produce its own food from an external energy source without having to eat other organisms or their remains
an organism that obtains its energy by eating other organisms or their remains
net primary production
the amount of energy that producers capture by photosynthesis or other means, minus the amount they lose as heat in cellular respiration
Net primary production
Energy in a system moves in a ______ direction and cannot be _______.

single, recycled
Nutrients can be _________.
Ecologists evaluate competing hypotheses about natural systems with ______, ______, and ________.
observations, experiments, and models
Events in the world are _________.
Climate is the most _________ component of the __________environment.
fundamental, physical
What results from differences in solar radiation?
Winds and ocean currents
What do large scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns establish?
global patterns of temperature and precipitation
What are seasonal and long-term climatic variations associated with?
Changes in the Earth’s position relative to the sun
What are three major determinants of the chemical environment?
Salinity, acidity, and oxygen concentration
The physical environment determines what three things?
1. Where an organism can live2. the resources available to them3.

the rate at which their populations can grow

the current temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, and cloud cover
long-term description of weather as a given location over decades
latent heat influx
heat loss due to evaporation
energy tranferred through the exchange of kinetic energy by molecules in direct contact with one another
energy transfer through water or air
Sensible heat influx
Energy transfer from the warm air immediately above Earth’s surface to the cooler atmosphere by convection and conduction
What are the greenhouse gases?
Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide
warm air rising above cool air
Atmospheric pressure
results from the force exerted on a packet of air by the air molecules above it, so it decreases with increasing altitude.
once the air reaches a temperature similar to that of the surrounding atmosphere, it descends toward Earth’s surface
Hadley Cell
A large-scale pattern of atmospheric circulation in each hemisphere caused by the tropical uplift
Polar cell
Cold, dense air subsides at the poles and moves toward the equator when it reaches Earth’s surface.The descending air is replaced by air moving through the upper atmosphere from lower latitudes creating
Ferrell Cell
Exists at mid-latitudes between Hadley and polar cells. Driven by the movement of the Hadley and polar cells and by exchange of energy between tropical and polar air masses
What are the three climate zones?
Tropical, temperate, polar
What are the latitude designations for the three climate zones?
Tropical – 30 N and STemperate – btw 30 and 60 N and SPolar – above 60 N and S
Wind flows from areas of _______ pressure to areas of _______ pressure.
High, Low
The Coriolis effect
Winds in the Northern Hemisphere deflect clockwise (right) and winds in the Southern hemisphere deflect counterclockwise (left) because of the rotation of Earth on its axis.
where deep ocean water rises to the surface
Where do upwellings occur?
where prevailing winds blow nearly parallel to a coastline
What three factors influence and alter the global patterns?
ocean currents, the distribution of land and water, and elevation
Why is it colder in mountains and highlands that in surrounding lowlands?

atmospheric pressure and the density of air decreases with increasing elevation and absorbs less infared radiation2. highlands exchange air more effectively with cooler air in teh surrounding atmosphere

What are maritime climates characterized by?
by little variation in daily and seasonal temperatures, and higher humidity
What are continental climates characterized by?
variations in daily and seasonal temperatures
_________ to oceans influences regional _________.
proximity, climates
________ influence wind patterns and gradients in _________ and _________.
Mountains, temperature and precipitation
Rain-shadow effect
lower precipitation and soil moisture on the slopes facing away from the prevailing wind and higher precipitation and soil moisture on the windward slope
__________ affects climate via surface energy exchange.
the capacity of a land surface to reflect solar radiation
the sum of water loss through transpiration and evaporation, this increases with the area of leaves per unit of ground surface area
What results from the annual orbit of the earth around the sun?
Intertropical Convergence Zone
What is the Intertropical Convergence Zone?
the area between the Northern and Southern hemispheres as Earth orbits the sun where seasonal changes in precipitation are associated with teh movement of the zone of maximum solar radiation
Seasonal changes in the aquatic environment are associated with changes in what?
temperature and density
What does stratification determine?
the movement of nutrients and oxygen
surface water layer
the zone of rapid temperature decline
stable layer of the densest, coldest water
What is El Nino associated with?
an oscillation in the positions of high-pressure and low-pressure cells over teh equatorial Pacific which leads to a weakening of teh easterly trade winds.
El Nino Southern Oscilation
La Nina
stronger than average phases of the normal pattern with high pressure off the coast of South American and low pressure in teh wetern Pacific
What does the PDO affect?
affects climate similar to ENSO and can moderate or intensify the effects of ENSO
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Milankovitch cycles
a combination of regular changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit and the tilt of its axis clanged the intensity of solar radiation at high latitudes
the concentration of dissolved salts in water
Oxygen concentrations vary with what three factors?
elevation, diffusion, and consumption