Ecology Exam 1

Greek root meaning home/place to live.
Ernst Haeckel
Coined the term Ecology – interaction between organisms/environment.
Charles Krebs
Changed definition of Ecology to interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms.

Modern Definition of Ecology
Study of biotic + abiotic interactions that determine distribution and abundance of organisms.
Applied Ecology
Early emphasis of ecology (tropical plant ecology, pest control).
Mid-20th Century Ecology
Theoretical emphasis, Robert MacArthur/E. O. Wilson.

Late 20th Century Ecology
Conservation emphasis, E. O. Wilson.
Study of Ecology
Organismal level through biosphere level.
Change in gene/allele frequencies.

Natural Selection
Genertic variability + differential survival.
Proximate Cause
Immediate cause.
Ultimate Cause
Evolutionary cause.
Reproductive Fitness
Differential promotion of one’s genes into next generation.
Biome Characteristics
Temperature, precipitation, evaporation, physical features.
Biome Temperature
Temperature range + presence/absence of frost.
Biome Precipitation
Annual amount + distribution.

Biome Evaporation
More intense at low latitudes.
Biome Physical Features
Mountains + proximity of large bodies of water.
Biome Physical Features
Mountains + proximity of large bodies of water.
Tropical Rainforest
High/steady rainfall and temperature, greatest biodiversity, rapid deforestation.

Tropical Dry Forest
High rainfall (dry and wet season) and temperature, deciduous trees and shrubs, high biodiversity.
Tropical Savanna
Low rainfall (1 or 2 dry/wet seasons, high temperature, grassland w/ few trees, high biodiversity.
Low rainfail, extreme temperature ranges, succulents/waxy plants, moderate biodiversity, expanding.
Temperate Needle-Leaved Forest
Moderate, steady rainfall, hot summers/cool winters, moderate biodiversity, pines/palmetto.
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Moderate steady rainfall, hot summer/cold winter, broad-leaved trees, moderate biodiversity.
Temperate Grassland
Moderate/seasonal rainfall, hot summers/cold winters, grasses, low biodiversity.

Temperate Woodland/Shrubland
Moderate rainfall/dry summer, relatively constant warm temperature, shrubs/short trees, high biodiversity.
Temperate Rainforest
High/seasonal rainfall, cool/steady temperatures, needle-leaved evergreens, moderate biodiversity.
Boreal Forest
Low rainfall (snow), extreme temperature range (frost), needle-leaved evergreens, low biodiversity.
Low rainfall (snow), extreme temperature range (frost), stunted trees, low biodiversity.
Sea/Pack Ice
More severe than tundra, no vegetation, low biodiversity.

Mountain Biome
Elevational stratification, rainfall increases/temperature decreases w/ elevation.
Differential Heating of Earth’s Surface
Results from orbital displacement, tilt, and rotation; creates air currents/Hadley Cells.
Hadley Cell
Warm air rises, releases moisture, travels north, sinks, travels south.
Coriolis Effect
In North, winds deflect to the right, opposite in south.
Local Climate Modifiers
Mountains, ocean currents, heat islands.
Ocean Effects on Climate
Heat sink, ocean currents, cold water upwellings.
Atlantic Conveyor
Ocean current that distributes heat across Earth.

El Nino
Winds blowing onshore prevent upwelling, warming surface waters. Stormy weather moves east, dry west, changes rainfall patterns.
La Nina
Storm generation in the pacific moves westward.
Human Influences on Climate
Heat islands, greenhouse gases.
Intertidal Zone
Region between low and high tide.

Neritic Zone
Region between intertidal zone and edge of continental shelf.
Epipelagic Zone
Open ocean. 32 parts/thousand salt.
Mesopelagic Zone
Below epipalagic zone.
Bathypelagic Zone
Below mesopelagic zone.
Abyssal Zone
Below bathypelagic zone.
Hadal Zone
Bottom of ocean.
Coral Reefs
Warm, >27% salinity, well-oxygenated, nitrogen limited.
Eel Grass/Kelp Beds
Cool, low-normal salinity.