Ecology Final (test 4)

Globally, most energy flow is through:
o    poikilotherms
Unlike energy flow through ecosystems, the elemental constituents of biomass:
o    are recycled
Microbial enrichment refers to:
o the release of dissolved nutrients from POM by microorganisms breaking it down
How can a P/R ratio (carbon sink/carbon source) indicate disturbance in natural communities?
o    pulses of organic matter can shift the ratio into a heterotrophic successiono    early successional stages resulting from “repair” of forest gaps are areas of higher production than respirationo    stable climax communities at equilibrium for biomass and energy dynamics tend to have a P/R ratio of  1
The terms Pioneer and Climax species have been used by botanists to describe:
q  r-selected species (pioneer) and K selected species (climax) based on growth dynamics and competitive ability. 
GPP – NPP = 
qplant respiration
A P/R ratio is indicative of which of the following:
qwhether or not a community is at steady stateqwhether or not a community is detritus basedqwhether a community is undergoing succession or is at climax
A P/B ratio provides an indication of:
o production as a fraction of biomass respired
The difference between regional natural NPP and human modified landscape production (agriculture, lawns,asphalt, concrete, buildings, etc.) is called:
o  coopted and missing production
Which of the following is listed in order of increasing assimilation efficiency:
o detritivores, herbivores, carnivores 
Which of the following factors contribute to determining the half-life of detritus in the 0 horizon?
qEcotone gradientsqTemperatureqmycorrhizae
Mineralization and Immobilization refer to:
A) The change in the net flux of nutrients as detritus decomposes (me)
What are the three dominant greenhouse gases
o none of these (CO2 NO2 CH4)
Energy that contributes to NPP but is not directly captured as chemical potential energy in biomass is called:
o energy subsidy
In terms of sources of nutrient pollution, which has a greater impact?
q Non-point sources
TMDL” stands for:
q Total Maximum Daily Load
Three broad categories that were presented as types of environmental impacts from man’s activities are:
q  overloads with biodegradables, alteration of abiotic conditions, addition of novel synthetic organics
What does “Assimilative Capacity” mean?
q  Ability to utilize or absorb a substance (The ability of a body of water to cleanse itself; its capacity to receive waste waters or toxic materials without deleterious effects and without damage to aquatic life)
What is the origin of the N coming down with the rainfall?
q  Onshore combustion of fossil fuels
Why is rainfall a problem for some sewage treatment plants?
q  some older cities have combined storm water and sewer systems 
Why isn’t sewage sludge used more widely as compost?
q  sludge may be contaminated with metals and synthetic chemicals.q  the attitude represented by: “You’re not putting that stuff on my vegetables!”
What are the potential uses of sewage treatment plant effluent?
q  Irrigation
.  The goal of secondary sewage treatment is:
biological treatment
Approximately what fraction of municipal solid waste going to landfills is biodegradable or recyclable?
q  >70%
Why don’t organic materials degrade in landfills?
q  They are anerobic
Why is mercury contamination such a problem in Florida?
q  There’s lots of sulfate reducing bacteria
Individual land/homeowners
q  none of these
Bioaccumulation:
q  results in increased toxicant loads if they are retained when assimilated biomass is respired.
What would you predict to be the effect of a toxic pollutant on growth efficiency?
q  energy expended in repair from toxicant damage would decrease growth efficiency
A tertiary stage of sewage treatment involves:
q  None of these  (nutrient removal)
.  If bacteria like to eat oil, why are oil spills a problem?
q  If it exceeds the assimilative capacity of the system, it creates a smothering overloadq  When the labile stuff is gone, the refractory stuff is toxicq  If it can find anaerobic space, it can’t be oxidized to CO2
PCB stands for:
q  none of these (polychlorinated biphenyls)
PAHs:
q  are hydrophobicq  are toxicq  come from coal tarq  come from crude oil
What is PAN?
q  Peroxacetyl Nitrate
Combustion of fossils fuels affects which of the following:
q  Air qualityq  Nitrogen loading in waterwaysq  Mercury loading of waterwaysq  Percent base saturation of soils
In order, which fuel provides the most energy return
Gasoline 
The greenhouse effect
o is an environmental cause with no real substance
.  Atmospheric carbon dioxide has increased approximately how much in the past 150 years
o 10 percent (it should be going up 2-3ppm per year, but instead is going up 1ppm)
Why is phosphate so naturally limiting?
It is very insoluble