Ecology part 2

competitive exclusion
two species that have exactly the same requirements cannot coexist in exactly the same habitat
keystone species
species that plays roles affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem (ie. fig tree whose fruit is necessary for survival of numerous animal species)
exotic species
species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or accidently introduced into an ecosystem by humans (ie. native of Russian lakes, zebra mussels that clog waterways around Detroit; E. coli bacteria found in human intestine)
Ubiquitous species
species that are found in almost anywhere on Earth
Endemic species
species that is found in only one area; such species are vulnerable to extinction (ie. Monterey pine, found only on portion of California coast)
Indicator Species
species that serve as early warnings that a community or ecosystem is being degraded
primary production
production by autotrophs
primary succession
initial establishment and development of an ecosystem
secondary succession
reestablishment of an ecosystem where there are remnants of a previous biological community
climax community
final stage of ecological succession or a stage in ecological succession during which an ecological community achieves the greatest biomass or diversity
has few offspring each time, cares for young and has high expectations for the survival of the offspring
has masses of offspring, not much parental care, may die after reproducing
expressed as a change in an organism because of a molecular DNA base change
genetic diversity
variability in the genetic makeup among individuals within a single species
food web
complex feeding patterns for consumers in an ecosystem; interconnected food chains
convergent evolution
environmental conditions lead unrelated species to look like each other
number of identified and named species


number of identified and named species
species richness
total number of different species contained in a community
species evenness
abundance of individuals within each species contained in a community
species dominance
most abundant species
species dominance
most abundant species
species dominance
most abundant species
generalist species
species with a broad ecological neiche’ can live in many different places, eat variety of foods, and tolerate wide range of environmental conditions (ie. flies, cockroaches, mice humans)