Ecology Quiz

Primary Succession vs Secondary
Primary: colonization of an area for the first time usually starts with pioneer species such as lichens

Secondary: colonization of an area that once supported vegetation after an ecological disturbance

Early successional vs late successional species
Early: r-selected, pioneer species, small

Late: k-selected large slow growing

Yellow Stone National Park
Established 1872 under Teddy Roosevelt but it was John Muir’s idea
Beatles and insects compose..
25% of world population
Charles Darwin Book
The origin of species
Alfred Russel Wallace
Introduction of Species
Natural Selection
differential reproductive success of individual organisms changes genetic traits of a population
Phenotypic plasticity
ability of an organism to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment
Genotypic plasticity
characteristic changes in a gene
3 outcomes of natural selection
directional selection: favor extreme phenotypes over another

stabilizing selection: favors phenotypes near the population mean

disruptive selection: selection for extremes of both ends results in polymorphism

Founder effect
effect of starting a populationin a new location with a small number of colonists, lack of genetic variation: markedly different new population may arise
Genetic drift
Over a period of time some genes in a population are fixed and other alleles are lost
Sympatric species
a species in which subpopulations occupy in the same area at the same time have oppertunity to breed
Allopatric species
a species in which subpopulations wee separated geographically (no oppertunity to mate)
A Cline
(slope like) measurable, gradual change in population characteristics over a range of geological region (result of adaptation to ecological gradient)
Ecotypes
(staircase like) genetic strains of subpopulations adapted to its unique local environmental conditions
Outbreeding depression; give an example.
Outcrossing two subpopulation resulting in decreased fertility, loss of vigor, reduced fitness, reduced pollen and seed fertility in plants, and even death. Example: bobwhilte quails.
The smaller the population, the more rapid genetic drift occurs.
TRUE
Disruptive selection could result in genetic polymorphism.
TRUE
Directional selection is the most common phenomenon.
FALSE
The population of northern elephant seals has rebound but still lack of diversity.
TRUE
That biodiversity is higher in and around ecotones and edges is called
edge effect
The term ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY coined by
E.O. Wilson
Fire that is intentionally set to manage ecosystem is
perscribed burn
That a non-toxic spp. resembles a toxic species is
Batesian mimicry
relative abundance calculation
spp.#/total#
%similarity
take species that are common and take the lowest of the two and add all up
cofficient of community
2(#in common)/total # of species
Overturn
The change of surface temperature in a body of water causes redistribution of nutrients in the water.

In the fall, cold, dense H2O sinks from the surface until the temperature become uniform throughout the lake/pond. Nutrients and O2 are evenly distributed.

In the spring, surface temp increases; lower water layer temp decreases

Temperature stratification
1. Epilimnion: warm, oxygen-rich upper layer of water
2. Metalimnion: zone with a significant drop in temp.
Thermocline: layer in a thermally stratified body of water in which temperature changes rapidly relative to the remainder of the body.
3. Hypolimnion: cold, oxygen-poor layer of water.
Types of lakes
Oligotrophic: nutrient-poor
Eutrophic: nutrient-rich
Hypertrophic = cultural eutrophic
Turbidity testing types
secchi disc
turbidity meter
1. What are the three layers of a lake in the summer according to the significant distribution of O2 and temperature?
a. Epilimnion
b. Metalimnion
c. Hypolimnion
2. What is the spring and fall overturn of a lake or a pond?
A transition of oxygen and temp from a heterogenous distribution to a homogenerous distribution throughout a lake or a pond in late fall and early spring.
3. Define thermocline.
The water layer that oxygen and temp dramatically decrease.
5. Litterbag studies
a. A measure of decomposition rate using litter materials in the aquatic ecosystems.