Ecology Test 1

fundamental vs. realized niche
fundamental niche – the potential or possible niche (larger)realized niche – the realistic or actual niche. determined by competition from other organisms for resources in fundamental niche (smaller)
fact: humans have ALWAYS had a (detrimental) effect on environment, not just recently
ie. Easter Island: used logs to roll volcanic rocks to periphery of island and build statues. but they deforested the island -> soil depletion -> overpopulation -> war -> cannibalism -> societal collapse
conservational biologists vs. theoretical ecologists
conservational – conserve animals however possible (interfere if necessary)theoretical – conserve processes and let nature take it’s course, then animals will learn from their mistakesie.

dolphins get stuck in river. what do we do?

niche vs. habitat
niche – range of tolerable conditionshabitat – physical setting
niche = n-dimensional hypervolume
-G.E. Hutchinson-niche is composed of many different dimensions food size, foraging height, humidity, etc.-no two species have the same niche (species specialize: marine or desert or etc organism?)
Global Patterns
temperature and precipitation! -sun distributes heat differently across planet = different climates -in a non-spinning earth, there are 2 cells of precipitation (one in north, one in south) -in a spinning earth there are 3 cells per hemisphere (6 total) called hadley cells
Hadley Cells
0 – wet and hot -tropical rain forests30 – dry and warm – deserts60 – wet and cool – temperate rain forests90 – dry and cold – frozen tundra
soil formation = F (C.P.O.

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S.T.)

C – climate (ie water and temperature)P – parent materialO – living organisms involvedS – slope or terrainT – time
Soil Profile
plant on topO – organic layer (decomposed leaves)A – humus layer -plant roots, most abundant life, michellesB – accumulation of minerals due to water “leaching” them downC – transition layerR – parent rock
Michelles
-control nutrient availability-michelles are surrounded by negative charges which attract nutrients (+ charged)
Nutrients – cation exchange capacity
cations exchange spots of michelles due to binding ability:H+ (most tightly bound)Ca2+Mg2+K+Na+ (most loosely bound)
soil texture
proportion of differently sized particles:gravel – >2 mmsand – 0.5-2 mmsilt – 0.02-0.5 mmclay – <0.

02 mm

soil structure
-how particles are arranged relative to each other (clumped together or even dispersed)
Water-holding capacity
-negative charges on soil (michelles) hold water-clay holds much more water than gravel but gravel is better at draining water-surface area : volume ratio increases with smaller particles causing an increase in water-holding capacity
field capacity
maximum amount of water that soil can hold against gravity
biomes: effect of mountains
-mtns affect temperature and precipitation”altitude mimics latitude” (temperature effect)mtn: desert (base), then oak, then alpine, then glacial (top)air picks up moisture over ocean->moves inland and cools, causing rain (in seattle) ->air goes over mountains (cascades) -> moves even farther inland as dry air (spokane)
heat capacity
mount of energy it takes to change the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 degree-ie. water has a high heat capacity
biomes: effect of water
-coastal cities have more moderate temperatures because coastal cities have more water in the air to moderate the temperature-dry places have more extreme temperatures and bigger differences between highs and lows
Coriolis Effect
-apparent deflection of a moving object in a rotating frame of reference-ie. shooting rocket from equator to north things in N hemisphere deflect to the right (clockwise) in S hemisphere deflect to the left (counterclockwise)
Gyres
-a large system of rotating wind currents in the oceans-affects the water temperature ie. west coast water is cold, east coast water is warm
Tundra
-cold, treeless, dry, long winters and short summers-ground is permanently frozen
Taiga/Boreal Forrest
-coniferous (evergreens) forest-very cold winters, warm and humid summers
Grasslands
-rolling hills with either short grass or long grass depending on rainfall
Deciduous Forrest
-lots of trees and shrubs-temperatures are not bad and decent rainfall
Chaparral
-very hot and dry-the “wild west”-lots of shrubs and cacti
Desert
-hot, sand, some are really cold in winter
Savannah
-rolling grassland with trees-always warm-one long dry winter and one long wet summer
Tropical Rain Forrest
-a shit ton of rain-always warm
ecophysiology
-adaptations of species to live in their environment
ectotherm/endotherm factors
energy expenditurebody size limitefficiency (enzymes)
water budget
W (food + drinking + absorption – secretion – evaporation)
kangaroo rat adaptations
-nocturnal, metabolic water instead of drinking water, lives in burrow
stomates
open – take in CO2, lose waterclosed – keep water, don’t get CO2
C3 plants
keep stomata open longer-RuBP has low affinity for CO2-more water loss-cooler environment
C4 plants
keep stomata closed longer-PEP has high affinity for CO2-less water loss-arid environment
CAM plants
stomata open during night, closed during day
desert comparison (camel and cactus)
1. body size2.

insulation3. water usage4. temporal (stomates)

estuary
-semi enclosed body of water with a measurable salinity gradient
what contributes to estuary productivity?
freshwater input, sunlight (depth), and circulation (tides)
stenohaline vs. euryhaline
stenohaline – narrow tolerance (niche)euryhaline – wide/broad tolerance (niche) so less competition